Almost everyone will agree that some degree of authority in certain individuals or groups (and their obedience by other groups) is desirable for the proper functioning of a society. While conformity focuses on changing to fit into a group, obedience has more to do with the level of authority of the person doing the influencing. ). Another writer who has carried out work of significance on the subject of obedience to authority is Doris Lessing. We use cookies to give you the best experience possible. 1. There are many examples in daily life in which authority affects the obedience of . (2018, Mar 02). When the subjects arrived at the Yale University laboratory, a researcher told them that they would be participating in an investigation about learning. ” (“Fromm,” On Disobedience…). “Meyer’” Inaccuracies in Children’s…. The question that we have to ask ourselves is: Are we taking the middle path in the wake of the 11th September events? Jesus knew that “he who sent me is with me. //Enter domain of site to search. Unfortunately, history has shown that this happens time and again, usually with undesirable results. One might question whether a game show host has as much authority as a scientific experimenter, but whatever authority they had managed to elicit levels of obedience equivalent to Milgram’s original experiment (in fact somewhat higher, 81 percent as opposed to … Eichmann was declared sane by six psychiatrists, he had a normal family life and observers at his trial described him as very average. Lessing believes that we are by nature “group animals” with a marked herd instinct and in order to fight this instinct a conscious and deliberate effort is required. In Jesus Christ, we find the perfect model of obedience. Introduction: Obedience to Authority History contains many examples of what happens when people neglect to speak out against corrupt authority, which has led to atrocities such as the Holocaust. Obedience. He alerts the readers to the seductive comforts of obedience and the discomfort one must endure in order to disobey. She has discussed the effects of stress, prompting and imagination on children’s memories and powers of recall. Obedience is the change of an individual’s behavior to comply with a demand by an authority figure. At his trial in 1961, Eichmann expressed surprise at being hated by Jewish people, saying that he had merely obeyed orders, and surely obeying orders could only be a good thing. Obedience to Authority No human social organization can function without some degree of obedience to authority, as the alternative would be anarchy leading to total chaos. /> The obedience study of Milgram has parallelisms in the case of Jonestown massacre. This style of manager at least needs to look around and work on key relationships with those around them. Obedience to authority. The subjects in the obedience experiments were normal adults who had responded to an ad in the New Haven Register, recruiting volunteers for a study of memory. Obedience to Authority No human social organization can function without some degree of obedience to authority, as the alternative would be anarchy leading to total chaos. Therefore, the person giving the order has a higher status than the person receiving the order. All you need to do is fill out a short form and submit an order. var pfHeaderImgUrl = 'https://www.simplypsychology.org/Simply-Psychology-Logo(2).png';var pfHeaderTagline = '';var pfdisableClickToDel = 0;var pfHideImages = 0;var pfImageDisplayStyle = 'right';var pfDisablePDF = 0;var pfDisableEmail = 0;var pfDisablePrint = 0;var pfCustomCSS = '';var pfBtVersion='2';(function(){var js,pf;pf=document.createElement('script');pf.type='text/javascript';pf.src='//cdn.printfriendly.com/printfriendly.js';document.getElementsByTagName('head')[0].appendChild(pf)})(); This workis licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-No Derivative Works 3.0 Unported License. The problem arises when the obedience to authority is taken to extremes. Destructive obedience assumes that the identification with the leadership or authority triumph over the authenticity of the authority’s request and that the effect of the action offer benefit only to a restricted group of people (Passini 15). Obedience is a part of the foundation of society. https://www.simplypsychology.org/obedience.html. The results of the experiment were most disturbing: most (60%) of the “teachers” (who were ordinary people) continued to give the electric shocks right up to the maximum (lethal) level of 450 volts, just with a little bit of coaxing from the psychologist. In A New Outline of Social Psychology , ed. The response of the “teachers” in most of these countries was similar. In addition, their role in the study was explained to them thi… Obedience is a form of social influence where an individual acts in response to a direct order from another individual, who is usually an authority figure. It is this blind obedience to authority that every individual with a conscience needs to guard against. The film does not treat the issue in a one-sided or black and white manner but gives both sides of the subject. Given that there appears to be nothing particularly unusual about Eichmann, we must face the uncomfortable possibility that his behavior was the product of the social situation in which he found himself, and that under the right circumstances we may all be capable of monstrous acts. individual on the other end, basically causing total compliance of the 'teacher'. In case you can’t find a sample example, our professional writers are ready to help you with writing (“Milgram,” Obedience to Authority.. ). The presence of an authority figure. Background Information: Obedience defined by Andrew Colman, in human behavior, is a form of “social functions in which a person yields to explicit instructions or orders from an authory figure". Without obedience, naught would exist but chaos and anarchy. It will simply result in disastrous anarchy: Individuals have to relinquish some of their own autonomy for the welfare of the larger group. In Lessing’s opinion this can be done by being aware of the propaganda techniques used by the Governments, advertisers and other people in positions of authority to manipulate and control group behavior, and by consciously resisting pressures to conform. Without stability, productivity and the well-being of the citizens become non-existent. Milgram's interest in obedience to authority reflected another major event from one year earlier: the trial of Adolf Eichmann. So the best answer in any civilized society is to take the middle path. Obedience is defined by psychologists as a form of human behavior which is characterized by carrying out orders or commands from someone else of a higher status or authority (Milgram, 19974). Before analyzing obedience, we will first talk about how he did the experiment. Milgram repeated his experiments in several other countries apart from the USA, like Australia, South Africa and several European countries. 3. (“Baxter”) These experiments were conducted at a time when the world was still struggling to understand the atrocities committed by the Nazis in World War II. : 81 The Tenth Level was a fictionalized 1975 CBS television drama about the experiment, featuring William Shatner and Ossie Davis. In case of an error or incorrect response from the learner, he was to be given an electric shock through a generator. Another form of social influence is obedience to authority. Milgram’s experiment consisted of selection of “teachers” from ordinary people who were asked to participate in an “experiment” in which the teacher was to ask certain simple questions from a learner. The issue has been explored in the recent popular cinema through films such as The General’s Daughter and more significantly in the 1999 court-room drama A Few Good Men. function Gsitesearch(curobj){ curobj.q.value="site:"+domainroot+" "+curobj.qfront.value }. Essay, Use multiple resourses when assembling your essay, Get help form professional writers when not sure you can do it yourself, Use Plagiarism Checker to double check your essay, Do not copy and paste free to download essays. (“A Few Good Men: Review”) This is perhaps the crux of the issue—almost everything in the world having more than one perspective or side to it. This can lead to trouble if it causes people to fail to exercise their own independent ethical judgment. Therefore, the person giving the order has a higher status than the person receiving the order. Predictions and Variations Conclusion, Was Milgram ethical in his obedience studies, https://graduateway.com/obedience-to-authority/, Get your custom That obedience breeds detachment from responsibility, with particular regard to the most heinous of crimes, is yet another problem of obedience. Obedience to Authority Obedience to authority is the tendency people have to try to please those in charge. 235–46. Therefore, the person giving the order has a higher status than the person receiving the order. The issue of following orders versus human rights in the military has been intelligently handled. During the testing phase, each time the learner made a mistake, the subject-teach… When a subject arrived in Milgram’s lab, he was met by the experimenter, who explained that his job was to try to teach another subject—the learner— to memorize a list of adjective-noun pairs. This has even more relevance to our circumstances today. our expert writers, Hi, my name is Jenn var idcomments_post_url; //GOOGLE SEARCH Were they afraid, or was there something in their personality that made them like that? var idcomments_acct = '911e7834fec70b58e57f0a4156665d56'; In one of the most famous series of experiments in psychology Milgram (1963-74) demonstrated that most participants would give a helpless victim fatal electric shocks when ordered to. But she passionately believes that instead of going along with the herd, those of us who value independent and individual thinking, can resist the trend. Such pressures include peer pressure, dogma and theories propagated by political and religious leaders and parties. Following the Second World War - and in particular the Holocaust - psychologists set out to investigate the phenomenon of human obedience. Is the bomb them into oblivion “majority opinion” as reflected in the polls to be followed without questions or should the issues be analyzed in a more dispassionate manner? var idcomments_post_id; Real Life Example of Obedience. They also explain, to a large extent, the seemingly perplexing behavior of many ordinary Germans during World War II and some American soldiers in Vietnam. The theme of obedience to authority has even greater significance in the military environment. In fact, Jesus said “My food is to do the will of him who sent me and t… ', but he quickly found that we are all surprisingly obedient to people in authority. Thesis On Obedience To Authority. What made all those people follow the orders they were given? As his disciples, we … Apart from the Holocaust, the mass suicides of the Jim Jones cult in Guyana, the debacle at Waco, the My Lai massacre are some other historical examples of blind obedience to unjust authority. Retrieved from https://graduateway.com/obedience-to-authority/, This is just a sample. Obedience occurs when you are told to do something (authority), whereas conformity happens through social pressure (the norms of the majority).. Obedience involves a hierarchy of power / status. These shocks were to start at a mild 15 volts and gradually increased to an extremely painful (and lethal) level of 450 volts. Jesus Calls Us to Obey. Obedience involves a hierarchy of power / status. Stanley Milgram was interested in how easily ordinary people could be influenced into committing atrocities, for example, Germans in WWII. In the 1960s, psychologist Stanley Milgram conducted a series of studies on the concepts of obedience and authority. Milgram’s Obedience Study . In his jail diary Eichmann wrote 'The orders were, for me, the highest thing in my life and I had to obey them without question' (extract quoted in The Guardian, 12 August, 1999, p. 13). Our military system, acts of genocide, and the inequalities of women are all negative products of mass obedience to authority. It is distributed by Alexander Street Press. The conflict between compliance with the demands of those in authority and individuals having private and sometimes different views, has been a subject of debate since ancient times in religion and philosophy. There are also examples, such as the American Revolution, where people disobeyed government authority and achieved something good. In countries where obedience and deference to authority is less valued (such as Australia), obedience rates are much lower than in countries that value legitimate authority figures (such as Germany), suggesting legitimacy of authority does play a part in obedience. Milgram (1963) was interested in researching how far people would go in obeying an instruction if it involved harming another person. God’s command to Abraham to kill his son, being one such example. The authority-obedience manager’s focus on concern for the task makes them have lower focus on people and therefore have a hard time establishing trust with people. Psychological evidence indicates that people tend to respect and follow those whom they perceive to have legitimate authority. Many psychologists and writers have thought about, discussed and conducted experiments to understand this human characteristic. 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