Spring spelts performed much better in North Dakota than in New York and Pennsylvania. 48 kernels per ear.) Common rates of nutrients to be applied are 50 to 60 lb/acre N, 25 lb/acre P2O5 and 30 lb/acre K2O. The seeding rate is 120-150 lbs per acre. The Hessian fly, greenbug, and wheat stem sawfly are the primary insect pests that attack wheat fields. 2012-2015 winter spelt performance at Freeville (FV), NY, Rock Springs (PA), PA and Willsboro (WB), NY. The seeding rate is 120-150 lbs per acre. Country 2018 … The protein content of champ has consistently been 1 to 1.5% higher than common spelt. These data are summarized from the original organic variety reports at Cornell University Small Grains Cultivar Testing website. The growth habits of spelt are similar to those of winter wheat. (Wheat in contrast yields approx. Center, Wooster, OH. — ... Maverick has nearly a 9 bushel per acre yield advantage over Oberkulmer. Variety Trial Results are best viewed in Adobe Reader. Oplinger1, E.A. Agronomy Department, Agricultural Extension Service, Purdue University, Purdue, IN. It grows well on sandy soils in the Midwest. Treatment of the seed with a fungicide prior to planting could help prevent a smut problem, but the label should be consulted for clearance for use on spelt. ... Management is similar to that of wheat, although spelt requires less nitrogen per acre than wheat. Accessibility Table 3. The topdressing should contain 10 to 20 lb less nitrogen per acre than for wheat; the straw of spelt is tall, and excess nitrogen can cause lodging. The spelt hull has nearly as much feeding value as the kernel. Spelt was introduced to the United States in the 1890s. Spelt can be grown on poorly-drained, low-fertility soils. Registration of 'Champ' Spelt. The yields in England were probably typical for Europe in the Middle Ages. However, these varieties can only be grown under production contracts where all production is delivered to Purity Foods. H. N. Lafever and L. G. Campbell. ... a … They are no longer identifiable, and spelt has been considered an undeveloped crop. Spelt, which is the most similar to modern-day wheat, and has 42 chromosomes. Yields averaged 1600 lb/a across all locations and 668 lb/a at the Penn State location. Newly released soft red winter wheat varieties such as 'Cardinal' yielded 10% ' more than Champ in Ohio. The new Champ variety from Ohio is a winter type. Like winter wheat, spelt is seeded in the fall and harvested the following summer, although it is late maturing compared with most wheat varieties. It also has a unique characteristic of producing a crop with some of the seeds already dehulled. Spelt should be seeded with a drill set as for oats to plant 80 to 100 lb/acre. Yield Potential and Performance Results: In plot yield trials in Ohio in the early 1980s, Champ produced an average of 3,009 lb/acre and common spelt produced an average of 2,442 lb/acre (See Table 1). Chapter 3: Special Planting Considerations Planting einkorn, emmer, and spelt in their hulls has challenges. It yields one kernel per ear. As a forage, it has the potential to yield with triticale. Sungold often yielded slightly more that Maverick and Maverick and Comet were similiar in 2 of the 3 years. Spelt is a hulled wheat that is a hexaploid, just like modern wheat. Over all locations, however, the CDC Zorba variety tended to have the highest yields, however. For example, in Pennsylvania, farmers plant spelt at about 120 pounds per acre when dehulled, and about 150 pounds per acre when in the hull. Einkorn yields 20-25% compared to regular wheat. Seed should be cleaned and tested for germination before planting. Yeilds for spelt are about 1 metric tonne/acre and a bushel is about 60 lbs. To access PDF files you … Spelt Wheat Club Wheat ... production • Average 73 Bu yield per acre . The yield estimate determined will only be a guide and assumptions made from the estimates contain a degree of uncertainty. Statistics on crop production are shown both at an aggregated level and for over 100 different crop products. Crop Science 28:377-378. Approximately 36.7 bushels of spelt/acre. In plot yield trials in Ohio in the early 1980s, Champ produced an average of 3,009 lb/acre and common spelt produced an average of 2,442 lb/acre (See Table 1). At the PA location, spring einkorn lines were planted in early April, and topdressed with pelletized poultry manure at 70 lb N/acre. Table 1. Spelt is often erroneously called "speltz." Tall and early would likely be good characteristics in this environment where heat stress and weeds in spring grains can be a problem. Production. Information for Raising Champ Spelt. Comparative performance of Champ spelt and common spelt at three locations in Ohio, 1981-85. Average fresh yields = 80-100tonnes/ha Dry matter = 15-24% Crude protein = 12-13% Digestibility value = 78% Metabolisable energy = 12.5-13MJ/kgDM Typical costs and values Total cost Cost per acre £591 (£1460/ha) Cost per tonne fresh weight £16 Cost per tonne utilised DM £115 Relative value £/tonne DM £122 Cost per litre of milk 6.2p Winter spelt performance during 2013 to 2015 at Rock Springs, Pennsylvania. ... 16:35 Growing Einkorn is more labor intensive and the yields (what you get per acre grown) are not as high as regular wheat. Newly released soft red winter wheat varieties such as 'Cardinal' yielded 10% ' more than Champ in Ohio. Penn State Hotlines Bingham - 12,275k Bu Power - 7,700k Bu Cassia - 6,802k Bu Latah - 6,770 k Bu Nez Perce - 5,580k Bu Winter Wheat by County . On an average, one acre yields around 28-30 quintals of paddy worth Rs 52,800 to Rs 56, 600 at the rate of Rs 1,888 per quintal as per the MSP. 1Yield = (bu/ac @28lbs/bu)2Test = (Bu/ac). We also tested some spring spelt lines, in collaboration with colleagues at both Cornell (Freeville, NY) and three locations in North Dakota, North Dakota State University, Cathay, ND and Robinson, ND (Table 3). These tests included two additional varieties, Comet and Sungold. 1976. Under organic production, the winter spelt yield preserved due to a set of protective measures amounts to 0.58-0.67 t/ha or 29.6-33.7%. Avoid planting spelt after other cereal crops. On yield loss, two insects were the primary cause. Champ has very good resistance to leaf rust but is only moderately resistant to powdery mildew. Doll1, B.R. Because the hulls are attached, germination is slower than for wheat. Yields are moderate, with 40 bushels per acre a reasonable goal. 5. Spelt has large pithy stems. Sungold was a bit later in maturity and similar in height to Maverick. As with oats, the hulls remain on the grain in threshing and comprise 20% to 30% of the grain weight. Rate (Kd, % HR, Van Amburgh, iNDF) RFV RFQ Milk per ton (lbs/ ton) 3.30 17.95 82.05 13.8 78.85 39.2 57.45 56.15 3.95 … All countries with a typical production quantity of at least 2 million metric tonnes are listed below. American food manufacturers in this country have begun to use spelt to meet the nation's increasing demand for pasta and high fiber cereals. Production costs for spelt are expected to be similar to other small grains, with variable costs of $320 to $390 per acre and fixed costs of about $40 per acre estimated in 2012. Some acreage in Ohio is contracted for production of spelt for pasta. The seeding date is the same as that for winter wheat - mid-September in the Upper Midwest. Yield potential exceeds 3,000 pounds per acre. A few varieties of spelt were developed in the early part of this century. This is a downloadable summary of the grain yield and quality results for spelt, emmer, and einkorn. Spelt has the same susceptibility to the Hessian fly as wheat. Other foliage diseases can occur, but can be reduced by crop rotation. Champ is awnless, brown-hulled, and about the same maturity as common spelt. The flavor and texture are similar to wheat. In most years yields averaged 90 to 100 bu/acre for the top lines. Kelling1, J.D. Under contract, growers have seeded as little as 42 acres and more than 2,500 acres. 1 Yield = (bu/ac @28lbs/bu) 2 Bushel weight = (lbs/bu) The results of our trials at Penn State over the project are shown in Table 2. Spelt is a late maturing grain closely related to wheat. U.P. Farro is harvested in early June, mostly by hand. The protein content of the Champ variety of spelt is about 11.7%, compared to 12% to 13% for oats. The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH. Hence, the demand for seed is limited. To plant spelt set the grain drill to the setting for oats and seed at a rate of 80-100 lbs per acre (although some growers suggest higher rates); plant seeds at a depth of at least 1¼ inches so that the root system can become established. When the seedbed is dry, spelt should be seeded slightly deeper than winter wheat. spelta) is a sub-species of common wheat. H. N. Lafever. Most of the nation's spelt acreage is in Ohio. An additional topdressing of nitrogen in early spring may improve yields. European settlers brought the grain to the U.S. in the late 1800s, and it remained popular for decades. However, because the test weight of spelt can vary considerably, the feeding value could be lower than for oats. So the cost of Einkorn is impacted by these two factors. It is popular in Europe, particularly in Germany. As a forage, it has the potential to yield with triticale. Spelt planting rate depends on whether it is planted in or out of the hull. In most years yields averaged 90 to 100 bu/acre for the top lines. Spelt can also be used in flour and baked goods to replace soft red winter wheat. It is grown for animal feed in our region but can be dehulled and ground into white and whole wheat flour for baking. Scholars have often criticized medieval agriculture for its inefficiency and low productivity. These tests included two additional varieties, Comet and Sungold. Spelt can also be used as a food grain after removal of the hulls. This line appears well adapted to Midwest growing conditions and has performed very well in trials in the upper Midwest and Canada. The average yield per acre for farro is one-sixth that of wheat. — Certified seed of this variety is available from Certified seed growers in Ohio. ... the quantity harvested (expressed in 1 000 tonnes) and … However, the test weight of spelt is often less than that of oats. Dan Bolton, NQPC farm services director, says quinoa fields look like vigorous crops of lambsquarters in June and July. Scientific Triticum spelta English Dinkel wheat Hulled wheat Spelt Spelt wheat Dutch Spelt Spanish Espelta French Blé des Gaulois Épeautre German Dinkel Spelt Spelz Italian Farro grande Farro spelta Spelta The grain drill should be calibrated to ensure that the desired seeding rate is obtained. 2200/60 = 36.66 lbs Yields of up to 100 bales per acre are common. On soils with optimum or lower soil tests, apply a complete fertilizer with a combination drill at seeding time. Organic farmers will often graze spelt during the growing season, however March 2011 Maverick is widely used for flour in our region as well. French's Hybrids, Inc., RFD 3, Box 132, Wakeman, OH. Yield in tons per hectare Conservative Likely Target Beetroot 14 18 25 Broccoli 5 8 12 Brussels sprouts 7 10 15 Butternut 12 15 - 18 25 - 30 Cabbage 30 50 80 - 90 Carrot, large 20 30 40 Carrot, baby 10 15 20 Cauliflower 7 - 8 10 - 12 15 - 20 Celery 15 - 20 25 - 30 40 Chilli, green 7 10 15 Chilli, dry 1,5 2,5 4 Cucumber 12 15 - 18 25 - 30 Egg-fruit 12 - 15 20 25 Garlic 6 10 15 Gem squash 12 15 - 18 25 -30 Spring spelt performance during 2013 -2014 in the Penn State trials located at Rock Springs, PA. Einkorn This page provides access to Einkorn Variety Trial Results from all NDSU Research Extension Centers. All three of these lines are available from French's Hybrids. More recently, spelt has re-em… Two private spelt lines, 1088 and 1094, had higher grain yields. of the closely related species common wheat (T. aestivum), in which case its botanical name is considered to be T. aestivum ssp. Spelt can be direct combined or windrowed and threshed similar to winter wheat. As with wheat, spring spelt crops are often less well adapted than winter spelts and often will yield much less. There are relatively few varieties of spelt available, and in general, spelt has reduced resistance to many small grain diseases that occur in NC. The following international wheat production statistics come from the Food and Agriculture Organization figures from FAOSTAT database, older from International Grains Council figures from the report "Grain Market Report". [quantify] Spelt is sometimes considered a subspecies [by whom?] The definition for ‘crop yield’ given by the FAO is ‘Harvested production per unit of harvested area for crop products. Table 2. Yet we still call spelt an ancient grain, when it’s really a relatively new cousin to einkorn! Comet was similar in maturity but shorter than Maverick. Table 1. Soil preparation is the same as that for winter wheat. Yield in t/ha = (220 × 24 × 3.4) / 10,000 = 1.79 Accuracy of yield estimates depends upon an adequate number of counts being taken so as to get a representative average of the paddock. Table 1 compares yields and other performance characteristics for Champ with common spelt from trials in Ohio. Forage quality is excellent. Spelt generally lodges less than soft red wheat, but more than semi-dwarf hard red spring or winter wheat. Spelt is generally more winter hardy than many soft red winter wheat varieties. However, these insects have not been a problem on wheat in the Upper Midwest and may not be a serious concern on spelt. Ground spelt is used primarily as an alternative feed grain to oats and barley. Spelt is primarily grown in Europe, the United States and Canada for flour. Spring spelt lines were planted in early April, and topdressed with pelletized poultry manure at 70 lb N/acre. are significantly lower than the state average. As for wheat, the average yield is 25 to 26 quintals per acre, which fetches Rs 49,000 to 51,000 at the rate of Rs 1,975 per quintal. Generally, canola is planted at 3 to 5 pounds per acre, but recent trials in NC indicated that the rate could be bumped up and result in better … Studies were conducted for three years at locations in New York and Pennsylvania and North Dakota. They attack early and mid-season growth, while quinoa is looking like a vigorous crop of lamb’s-quarters. Reference to commercial products or trade names is made with the understanding that no discrimination is intended nor endorsement implied by the Minnesota or Wisconsin Extension Services. This project was designed to evaluate some potential winter and spring varieties of spelt in an organic system. 1989. Adobe Reader is free software that lets you view and print Adobe Portable Document Format (PDF) files. This exhibit is of no help to the claimants inasmuch it does not give the statistics … Yields in the 21st century, by contrast, can range upwards to 60 bushels per acre. — In these trials, Maverick ranked the highest for yield and was also the shortest and earliest. The combine should be adjusted in a manner similar to that for harvesting oats. purchase of seed. Breakeven costs for conventional spelt (2012) were estimated at $3 per bushel for 120 bushels of production. Spelt is a relative of wheat that evolved thousands of years ago in the Near East and Europe, as people first began to cultivate grains. Its nutritional value is close to that of oats. ... 12, and 15 pounds per acre. Poor years, however, might see yields drop to less than 4 bushels per acre. Spelt averages around 2–3 tonnes/ha, whilst yields of 4–5 tonnes/ha are possible for wheat. Winter Oats, Barley, Rye and Spelt. That state grows between 100,000 and 200,000 acres of spelt annually, about 10 times more than any other state. The information given in this publication is for educational purposes only. Some growers claim it can produce more grain than oats on a bushel basis on these soils. The demand for spelt may increase in the coming decade, however, because of its recently developed uses in the food industry. Organic — Winter Wheat and Spelt 18. E.S. The biggest challenge to organic spelt production is reduced yield due to diseases and variety selection. By the 1920s, however, spelt had fallen out of favor as a food for human consumption for several reasons, including its inconsistent yields and need to be dehulled. 1988. Its winter hardiness is about equal to that of common spelt. More details on their characteristics can be found on the French's Hybrids website. Spelt. At the Penn State location (Table 4), the Forage Spelt variety tended to be the one of the tallest and also had the highest yields. Even so, spelt was popular until the 1920s when it fell out of favor because it gave poor yield per acre and was difficult to thresh. In 1999, SK3P spring spelt grain yields were 1433, 2856, and 2999 lbs per acre at Moccasin, Conrad, and Sidney, respectively, compared to multi-species mean yields of 1712, 3045, and 4006 lbs per acre. Seed treatment with a fungicide, such as Vitavax, would prevent problems with bunts; however, the label should be consulted to see if the fungicide is cleared for use on spelt. There is very little evidence that any spring types of spelt exist. It has very good standability and good test weight. If there are many weeds, the crop should be windrowed and the windrow allowed to dry for a few days. Information and resources for the Ag Sciences community. Spelt is generally more winter hardy than most soft red winter wheat, but less winter hardy than most hard red winter wheat varieties. The results of our trials at Penn State over the project are shown in Table 2. 2020 The Pennsylvania State University. Ohio Ag. Table 4. Apply lime to maintain soil pH at about 6.0. Spelt is a late maturing grain closely related to wheat. increases in yield per acre. In most of the cases yield data are not recorded but obtained by dividing the production data by the data on area harvested. No performance data are available for Minnesota or Wisconsin. The crop can then be picked up and threshed with a combine fitted with a pick-up attachment. For direct combining, the moisture content of the crop should be 14% or less. The quantities of wheat in the following table are in million metric tonnes. Follow same practices as for winter wheat. Champ is the only improved variety that has been released (Ohio State, 1986) in recent decades. No official test weight has been established for spelt, but recent tests show that unhulled it averaged 28 lb/bu. The best weed control practices are tillage, establishment of a good stand, and weed control in previous crops. In that study, farm wheat yields averaged 41.7 bushels per acre (2.2435 metric ton/hectare), and typical total wheat production value was $31,900 per farm, with total farm production value … Although Champ is slightly taller than common spelt, its straw strength is considerably improved. This work was supported by National Institute of Food and Agriculture, USDA award #2011-51300-30697. Two of the top yielding lines across all locations were TM23 and WB Alpine. Ohio Cooperative Extension Service. Resh. There is sufficient … Maverick, Comet and Sungold were high yielding in these trials. Our winter combined initial trials consisted of four winter spelt varieties (Table 1) and were later expanded to include six varieties. 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