For information on reusing text from Wikipedia, please see the terms of use. [9] Forward genetics is increasingly being used.[9]. Licensed under CC-BY-SA License statement/permission on Wikimedia Commons. The most commons are the potyvirus Sugarcane Mosaic Virus (SCMV), Maize Dwarf Mosaic Virus () or the tritimovirus Wheat Streak Mosaic Virus (WSMV). Maize lethal necrosis disease symptoms (Photo 1a and Photo 1b) is caused by the synergistic co-infection of maize with maize chlorotic mottle virus symptoms (Photo 2) and any virus from the family Potyviridae, these include wheat streak mosaic virus, maize dwarf mosaic virus symptoms or sugarcane mosaic virus symptoms (formerly maize dwarf mosaic virus-B… This disease is caused by infection with 2 viruses at the same time: Maize chlorotic mottle virus, and; MDMV (or one of its relatives). SUMMARY: Maize lethal necrosis disease (MLND) is a new viral disease for Africa. [4], Leaves of infected plants become yellow from the tip and margins to the centre. [7], MLN resistance is an important trait to maize breeders. Its presence has been confirmed in Kenya, Rwanda, Tanzania, Democratic … Licensed under CC-BY-SA License statement/permission on Wikimedia Commons. Researchers have established a link between declining maize yields and MLN (Wangai et al. This virus ordinarily produces mild symptoms when present alone in corn; however, when a key second virus … In September 2011, a serious disease outbreak, later diagnosed as maize lethal necrosis (MLN), was reported on maize in Kenya. An alarming threat to food security … Called maize lethal necrosis (MLN; or corn lethal necrosis, CLN), it can devastate maize crops. MLND can also cause dwarfing and premature aging of the plants. It has caused great concern because plants are killed and little or no grain is produced. For information on reusing text from Wikipedia, please see the terms of use. The disease is difficult to control for two reasons: It is caused by a combination of two viruses that are difficult to differentiate individually based on visual symptoms. This article incorporates text from a free content work. for at least 2-3 years/seasons and removing alternate hosts including, sorghum, grasses, millet, wheat, oats, sudan grass. Older leaves (bottom of plant) remain green. The maize lethal necrosis (MLN) disease, which appeared in the region in 2011, has caused major losses to maize crops, decreasing food security and the ability of the smallholder farmers to provide for their families. The Maize Lethal Necrosis Disease (MLND) is a result of a combination of two viruses, the Maize Chlorotic Mottle Virus (MCMoV) and any of the cereal viruses in the Potyviridae group, like the Sugarcane Mosaic Virus (SCMV), Wheat Streak Mosaic Virus (WSMV) or Maize Dwarf Mosaic Virus (MDMV). Text taken from Plantwise Factsheets for Farmers: Control vectors of Maize Lethal Necrotic Disease, Joyce G. Kessy, CABI. Maize lethal necrosis was first identified in the USA in 1976 ( Niblett and Caflin, 1978 ). Maize sterile stunt virus (strains of barley yellow striate virus ) Maize streak. [5], In the early stages, MLND causes long yellow stripes on leaves. Maize is the staple food crop for subsistence farmers in East Africa. Late infected plants don’t tassel and tend to produce poor grain filled cobs. To learn how to add open license text to Wikipedia articles, please see this how-to page. MAIZE LETHAL NECROSIS HISTORY In September 2011, a disease outbreak in Kenya was positively identified as Maize Lethal Necrosis Disease (MLND). This article incorporates text from a free content work. Maize lethal necrosis (MLN) is a disease of maize caused by the combination of Maize chlorotic mottle virus (MCMV) and a virus belonging to the potyviridae family. declining acreage under maize cultivation and demands of fast growing population (Nuss and Tanumihardjo, 2010). They also recommend not moving infected maize plants and seeds to disease-free areas. Called maize lethal necrosis (MLN; or corn lethal necrosis, CLN), it can devastate maize crops.Infection rates and damage can be very high, seriously affecting yields and sometimes causing complete loss of the crop. Maize lethal necrosis disease (MLN disease, MLND, corn lethal necrosis) is a viral disease affecting maize (corn) predominantly in East Africa, Southeast Asia and South America, which was recognised in 2010. Maize lethal necrosis disease (MLN disease, MLND, corn lethal necrosis) is a viral disease affecting maize (corn) predominantly in East Africa, Southeast Asia and South America, which was recognised in 2010. Maize lethal necrosis, a disease caused by a set of viruses, results in up to 100 per cent yield losses, thus having a devastating impact on food security and smallholders’ incomes in Sub-Saharan Africa, according to the International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center (CIMMYT). The maize lethal necrosis (MLN) screening facility at the Kenya Agricultural Research Institute (KARI) Naivasha in Kenya. [6], Partners of the CABI-led programme, Plantwise recommend where possible using certified, disease-free seed. For information on reusing text from Wikipedia, please see the terms of use. [1][2], Spread of the disease is driven by expansion in the range of maize chlorotic mottle virus, which is thought to be transmitted by species of thrips including maize thrips (Frankliniella williamsi) and possibly western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis. Viruses involved in maize lethal necrosis disease. Maize is critical for food security in SSA; eastern and southern Africa use 85% of the maize produced as food, while Africa as a whole uses 95% as food (Shiferaw et al. MLND symptoms can be confused with symptoms of nutrient deficiency but plants affected by MLND appear only in some areas and are scattered or clumped in a field while nutrient deficiency appears on many plants over large areas of a field. The disease prevents the plants from growing tall, causes yellowing and death of the leaves, and stops the ears from growing and setting seeds. This disease is caused by infection with 2 viruses at the same time: Maize chlorotic mottle virus, and Text taken from Plantwise Factsheet for Farmers: Prevention and detection of Maize Lethal Necrosis Disease, Hiwot Lemma, Daniel W. Michael, Mhreteab Tsegay, CABI. Disease is associated with the presence of maize thrips and the growth of several crops of maize annually. To learn how to add open license text to Wikipedia articles, please see this how-to page. The disease is caused by a combination of two viruses, Maize chlorotic mottle virus (MCMV) and Sugarcane mosaic virus (SCMV), a pathogen prevalent in many parts of Kenya affecting cereal crops. Pest and disease outbreaks are key constraints to maize productivity. The disease is difficult to control for two reasons: firstly, it is caused by a combination of viruses; secondly, it can be spread through seed and by insect vectors that may be carried by wind over long distances. Licensed under CC-BY-SA License statement/permission on Wikimedia Commons. The disease has since been confirmed in Rwanda and the Democratic Republic of Congo, and similar symptoms have been reported in Tanzania, Uganda, South Sudan, and Ethiopia. Maize lethal necrosis, a disease caused by a set of viruses, results in up to 100 per cent yield losses, thus having a devastating impact on food security and smallholders’ incomes in Sub-Saharan Africa, according to the International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center (CIMMYT). Corn lethal necrosis develops when two viruses occur together in the same plant. For information on reusing text from Wikipedia, please see the terms of use. Maize Lethal Necrosis Disease is a serious disease of maize caused by viruses.This disease attacks maize at all stages of growth and causes total maize loss. [3] In early March 2015, the middle of the rainy season, losses were estimated at 10%. The potyviruses responsible for MLN are transmitted by several species of aphids and, in the case of wheat streak mosaic virus, wheat curl mite. 1 Introduction This popular booklet, already in its fourth edition, is designed as a quick guide for identifying maize diseases. 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