Keep reading if you’re looking for some tips on teaching the one-pager and getting past the whole…”art,” thing. Producer driven models are concerned with mass production, while buyer-driven models are production units concerned with flexible specialization, based on the growing importance of segmented demands in developed country markets. A commodity chain is a process used by firms to gather resources, transform them into goods or commodities, and finally, distribute them to consumers. The longer-term trend in (non-oil) commodity prices shows the dual problems of high risk and low returns faced by these countries. Commodity chain analysis—sometimes also known as the ‘global commodity chains’ (GCC) approach—is a development of the world-system perspective. Furthermore, large retailers and brand name companies have the distinctive power to decide and control the products they buy, but without any direct involvement in the manufacturing processes. Ethical trade campaigns have been started for a number of commodities, such as clothing and horticulture produce. The input–output structure of the commodity chain approach emphasizes the embeddedness of economic agents such as raw material suppliers, factories, traders, and retailers within wider sets of inter and intrasectoral networks. Supply Chain Analysis. Def: Farming engaged in as a large-scale business operation embracing the production, processing, and distribution of agricultural products and the manufacture of farm machinery, equipment, and supplies. To identify the form of integration in the global economy and the power relations between each economic actor, the commodity chain concept has placed a strong analytical emphasis on the governance of economic action. a measure of inequalities between men’s and women’s opportunities in a country. The governance structure of each commodity chain is influenced to a large extent through the various forms of intra and interorganizational relationships. However, in addition to the continuous spatial fragmentation and dispersion of global production networks, there has been an increasing geographical concentration and integration of economic activities at various regional scales. AP Human Geography Review. This includes the extent to which economic actors are influenced by the institutional framework of the locational setting of their transactions, since production and trade have to coincide with the national and international regulations they are embedded within. Question #203253. However, chain concepts implement a more dynamic approach whereby production takes place in time and space and consists of subsequent and interconnected processes. The type of produce has an influential factor on the way production is organized, while the degree of processing has an influential factor on the actors included within the chain. In consequence, the commodity chain concept allows an investigation of the backward and forward linkages of individual firms from the very early stages of raw material production to final consumption of the finished commodity. Reading - Agricultural Land Use [CDATA[ International capital flows are a basis of this global shift of economic activities, however, they do not lead necessarily to direct investments in production facilities. Gross Domestic Product (GDP) Much of the debate on commodity chains, the focus of this article, is derived initially from Wallersteinian world system theory. Figure 2 illustrates the specific actors and nodes within a food commodity chain linking UK supermarkets with African producers. ... being kind enough to haul my monstrous poster presentation of student work over to the Duke Convention center for the AP Human Geography Professional Development night. Thus, the innovation processes within these key technologies to integrate the spatial dimension of economic activities result in a continuous geographical extension of chains. ... Commodity Chain . farmers and ranchers sell all of their output for money and buy their families' food at stores Intensive - yields a large amount of output per acre through concentrated farming (uses a small amount of land) extensive - yields a large amount of output per acre through less intensive farming (uses a … Both approaches apply a global perspective to conceptualize the integration of nations at different stages of economic development into the global economy. This is also the case for other agro commodities. Semiperipheral nodes often represent the organizational linkages between core and peripheral processes. Mining / Energy Extraction. (October 16, 2020). The starting point of commodity chain analysis is to focus on the dynamics of contemporary changes within individual industrial sectors and their corporate strategies. Production is a series of functions, such as design and product development, raw material procurement, assembly and manufacture, and marketing and distribution. It is argued that the higher the value added within a node, the higher is the competitiveness of the firm. In fact, since research on environmental issues has a strong tradition within geography as a discipline, future commodity chain research could place an even stronger focus on environmental sustainability, in combination with the social sustainability of agro production systems. They provide case studies of trade dependencies of developing countries from developed countries. Gross Domestic Product (GDP) Create a free account today. It could be argued that the more processed the food is, the more industrialized becomes an agrofood system and the more actors are included within a production system. "commodity chains 6 COMMODITY DEPENDENCE, GROWTH AND HUMAN DEVELOPMENT However, due to the failure to smooth spending of commodity windfalls over periods of price booms and busts, or use these resources to invest in economic structural transformation,4 most countries, especially CDDCs, experience periods of economic growth during booms and long depressions afterwards (Bevan et al., 1993). This test contains 5 questions with answers and explanation. These campaigns aim to influence through consumer choice the code of practice of transnational manufacturing corporations and retailer organizations. Helpful Links All A commodity chain is a process used by firms to gather resources, transform them into goods or commodities, and finally, distribute them to consumers.It is a series of links connecting the many places of production and distribution and resulting in a commodity that is then exchanged on the world market. All the following have been considered new industrial countries EXCEPT Companies located in core niches of this type of commodity chain are able to exert oligopolistic power because of their knowledge of markets, immense bargaining power, and retail outlets. Commodity chains are: …sets of interorganizational networks clustered around one commodity or product linking households, enterprises and states to one another within the world economy. Within this context, several approaches and traditions of theorizing and conceptualizing 'chains' in the production process are found in differing terminologies and disciplinary contexts. In the late 1990s, these main tropical agro commodities still generated more than 60% of total agricultural exports of all LDCs. AP Human Geography. Select the best answer choice. People in poverty may not be able to afford or have access to healthful foods even if available and may turn to cheaper fast food : B2. As a result of the market consolidation within retailing, these supermarketsare also endowed with a strong market power in relation to their agro commodity suppliers. Example: might hold a … The distinction between producer driven and buyer-driven commodity chains highlights the inter and intrasectoral variations of global capitalism. This also includes aspects of the realization and extraction of the economic surplus and the labor relations and composition. This article outlines the initial key arguments on which the subsequent commodity chain debate was based and on which a large body of literature has evolved. Search this site. 23030886: Gross National Product . . This conceptualization of the commodity chain framework has also attracted some criticisms. They demand some form of organizational and industrial capabilities and integrate processes of relatively advanced manufacturing and low end services such as quality control and component sourcing. Furthermore, semiperipheral nodes have been identified as an intermediary stage. Less incentive for large grocery stores to … AP Human Geography. farmers and ranchers sell all of their output for money and buy their families' food at stores Intensive - yields a large amount of output per acre through concentrated farming (uses a small amount of land) extensive - yields a large amount of output per acre through less intensive farming (uses a … In consequence, the accumulation of knowledge and power in high value research, design, sales, marketing, and financial services define the profitability of core companies. Encyclopedia.com. Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. Therefore, the analysis of agrofood commodity chains provides case studies of coordinations of highly localized spatial dimensions (e.g., farmers market) up to the very global scale (e.g., Ghana cocoa or Ethiopia coffee for consumption in Europe). AP Human Geography: Agriculture Below you will find a collection of resources selected from our website that you can use when teaching this topic. Further more, it has been argued that the institutional framework plays a far more relevant role in defining globalization and economic processes than the initial commodity chain literature would stress. ... which sentence best describes the definition of a theme in literature? Jul 17, 2020 - Explore Jen's board "AP Human Geography", followed by 739 people on Pinterest. AP Human Geography AMI Day 3 Directions: Make vocabulary cards for #19-27 only (term on side 1, complete definition on side 2). Each node has a set of structural components, which include acquisition and/or organization of inputs, employment policies, transport, distribution, and finally, consumption. However, consumption does not necessarily represent a consumer market and could also be a node of further processing. However, the concept has analytical potential for a wide range of economic/industrial sectors and the way consumers and producers are interlinked (see Figure 1). This includes the aspects of the geographical location of the nodes as well as the geographical structure of the firm's internal and external linkages. Millennium Development Goals 11. AP Human Geography Chapter 10 Vocab; Ap Human Geography Chapter 10 Vocab. However, the date of retrieval is often important. Output of these nodes is directed at gaining competitive advantage in the marketplace. AP Human Geography Multiple-choice Practice Questions: Industrialization and Economic Development. Unit I. Geography: Its Nature and Perspectives—Basic Vocabulary and Concepts Note: The following concepts transcend all units in AP Human Geography; they are central to all geographic thinking and analysis and could even be considered central to any definition of geography. The hierarchical affiliation of the node toward core or periphery is largely defined by the value added within, whereby core activities are those where the principal profit accrues. , Alfred Weber’s least cost theory, Bid rent theory, commodity chain, capital, newly industrialized countries, BRICS countries, technopole, growth pole. Search » All » Geography » AP Human Geography » AP Human Ch. They aim to improve the circumstances of production under which, for example, agro commodities are grown and produced and the livelihood for the people involved. ... Commodity Chain . explains the links between producers and consumers in the production and distribution of a commodity. A Dictionary of Sociology. ... chapter 3 migration vocab definitions; ap human geography thinking geographically; ap human geography chapter 7; chapter 8:political geograpghy; cracking the ap exam pgs. Economic actors tend to develop variations in the organization and coordination of economic activities based on the ownership of property rights, and the way these are obtained and exchanged. Chain, Ernst Boris (1906-1979) For economic geographers, one of the main concerns within commodity chain analysis has been the examination of ''the spaces through which consumers are connected to producers'' (Hughes and Reimer, 2004: 1). These barriers could be based on innovative process technologies, superior product qualities, or brand reputations as a result of cumulative marketing efforts. Cultural diffusion is about the spreading of culture over time. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most Encyclopedia.com content. About AP Human Geography. This is based on the general definition of the capitalist firm, in which production is a result of adding value to materials/ inputs to produce a specific product/ output. Final Project. German–born English biochemist AP Human Geography Chapter 10 Review – Development Terms/People: 1. commodity chain 2. break-of-bulk point 3. gross national product (GNP) 4. gross domestic product (GDP) 5. gross national income (GNI) 6. per capita GNI 7. formal economy 8. informal economy 9. digital divide 10. Gereffi argues that core companies or buyers embedded within this type of commodity chains are 'merchandisers' rather than 'manufacturers'. Therefore, Gereffi argued that industrial and commercial capital has a central role in creating commodity chains of distinctive governance structures that are either 'producer driven' or 'buyer-driven'. A chain migration is a movement of migrants from one place to another, encouraging successive waves of migration along the same route. Dictionaries thesauruses pictures and press releases. window.__mirage2 = {petok:"880acc6716b5293679f5e4d076b0d58e5cf29508-1607211804-86400"}; 2019 AP ® HUMAN GEOGRAPHY FREE-RESPONSE QUESTIONS GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE. Therefore, upgrading into secondary processing of agro commodities, such as coffee and cocoa, within developing countries is basically done only for consumption on the domestic market. series of links connecting the many places of production and distribution and resulting in a commodity that is then exchanged on the world market . The possibilities of these are endless, but it was a good way to break up a dull span in our content. https://www.encyclopedia.com/social-sciences/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/commodity-chains, "commodity chains Number each card (19-27). Cite this article Pick a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography. The commodity chain analysis intends to answer questions of how the various economic agents of individual countries are linked to the global economy. A commodity chain has been broadly defined as ''a network of labour and production processes whose end result is a finished commodity'' (Hopkins and Wallerstein, 1986: 156). It is a series of links connecting the many places of production and distribution and resulting in a commodity that is … Furthermore, the traditional definition of discrete industries in economics is becoming less useful in analyzing the contemporary interconnected relationships of firms. Although you will be expected to know and understand locations on a map and other cartographic concepts, this course takes in a myriad of geographical aspects: population, culture, politics, economics, agriculture, language, and religion, just to name a few. These variations in economic activities affect the governance of interrelationships and could be dominated by highly cooperative transactions or by a rather adversarial competition. My criteria for content went something like this: ... 2016 AP HUMAN GEOGRAPHY COLLABORATIVE EDUCATOR RUBRIC (FOR FUN) 2015 Edition ~ AP Human Geography FRQ and Exam Breakdown. … The geography of these nodes tends to be highly dispersed since the foundations of the competitive advantages can be easily replicated by other firms around the globe. Created by mbleffish. Although the institutional framework is identified as the fourth dimension in this concept because ''state policy plays a major role in GCCs'' (Gereffi, 1994: 100), the driving forces within the commodity chain itself are identified as the main causes for global change and firm specific behavior. The horticultural y [commodity] chain linking UK consumers and supermarkets with export firms and farmers in Africa has been directly affected by this process of retail concentration. Food Inc. Reflection2. Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates. AP Human Geography: Development- Unit Vocabulary; Ap Human Geography: Development- Unit Vocabulary. Definition:ownership by the same firm of a number of companies that exist along a variety of points on a commodity chain (e.g., Perdue Farms). Competitive advantage is often created within a highly localized cluster of economic actors to guarantee spatial proximity to research centers, superior component suppliers, and competing firms. Series of links connecting the many places of production and distribution and resulting in a commodity that is on world market These processes shape and reshape international economic activities into more complex and tightly connected production networks. Farmers and growers on the Southern Hemisphere supply supermarkets in Europe and North America with fresh produce. AP Human Geography Help » Agriculture, Food Production, & Rural Land Use » Rural Land Use & Settlement Patterns » Land Use & Cover » Desertification Example Question #1 : Desertification The process by which formerly fertile regions become arid and unusable for farming is called __________ . The definitions have been provided for you on this sheet with each term in the list below. Coach Pope High School 3001 Hembree Road Marietta, GA 30062. Summer Assignment 2015. The geographical configuration of the chain is influenced to a large extent by the technologies of transport and communication. The definitions have been provided for you on this sheet with each term in the list below. The commodity chain literature refers to these production processes as 'nodes', which identify specific processes of the chain and are embedded within larger networks of economic agents. A Journey Through the Commodity Trading Value Chain - Duration: 2:21. Series of links connecting the many places of production and distribution and resulting in a commodity that is then exchanged on the world market . AP Human Geography Chapter 10 Review – Development Terms/People: 1. commodity chain 2. break-of-bulk point 3. gross national product (GNP) 4. gross domestic product (GDP) 5. gross national income (GNI) 6. per capita GNI 7. formal economy 8. informal economy 9. digital divide 10. Cash crops, such as coffee, tobacco, cotton, sugar, rubber, tea, and cocoa, still represent a main source of income and foreign exchange for developing countries. The production of any commodity, whether it be a manufactured product or a service, involves an intricate articulation of individual activities and transactions across space and time. The United Nations is a great example of a SUPRANATIONAL ORGANIZATION because it embodies many nations working to help the economic, political, social, and environmental conditions of the world. Level 1 ... Commodity Chain. Furthermore, it provides a brief summary on how this concept has been applied to agro commodities. political geography to the rural –agricultural context of a developing country; and (3) the ability to evaluate the impact that empowering women would have … Unit I. Geography: Its Nature and Perspectives—Basic Vocabulary and Concepts Note: The following concepts transcend all units in AP Human Geography; they are central to all geographic thinking and analysis and could even be considered central to any definition of geography. 3 Vocab. The trajectory of world market integration sees economic development largely as a result of close interrelationships with transnational corporations (TNCs) from developed countries in which technology and knowledge transfers occur. College Board’s Advanced Placement® Program (AP®) enables willing and academically prepared students to pursue college-level studies—with the opportunity to earn college credit, advanced placement, or both—while still in high school. Description. ." commodity chains, commodity chain analysis The network of economic links which integrate transnational labour processes and corporations involved in global sourcing and global marketing of products. AP Human Geography Course and Exam Description Course Framework V.1 ... Complex commodity chains link production and consumption of agricultural products. Modernization Model 12. context 13. neo-colonialism Commodity chain. study of spatial organization of human activity and of peoples relationships with their environments: ... commodity chain: Definition. Commodity chain analysis—sometimes also known as the ‘global commodity chains’ (GCC) approach—is a development of the world-system perspective. Commodity Chain Series of links connecting the many places of production and distribution and resulting in a commodity that is then exchanged on the world market. In other words, the economic activities of firms, by their very nature, add value to a specific product and are therefore generally embedded within larger networks of market participants defining their backward and forward linkages. Course Syllabus. From the perspective of these critics, China is taking advantage of the vulnerability and desperation in many underdeveloped African countries by offering them huge unsustainable loans for projects which are usually predetermined to be undertaken by Chinese firms, using Chinese workforce. This article outlines the initial key arguments on which the subsequent commodity chain debate was based and on which a large body of literature has evolved. ∎ (chains) s…, Supply chain management (SCM) is a broadened management focus that considers the combined impact of all the companies involved in the production of g…, endopeptidase A protein-digesting enzyme that cleaves a polypeptide chain at specific sites between amino acids. At the same time, the geographical scale at which production networks are being configured continues to widen. This exporter is responsible for packaging, storage, and transport to the UK. Complex Commodity Chains ... AP Human Geography Self-Study and Homeschool. Encyclopedia.com. Millennium Development Goals 11. They not only integrate firms (and parts of firms) into structures that blur traditional organizational boundaries, through the development of diverse forms of equity and nonequity relationships, but also integrate national economies (or parts of such economies) in ways that have enormous implications for national economic development. 1. PSO-5.C.5: Technology has increased economies of scale in the agricultural sector and the carrying capacity of the land. The infant mortality rate is a key demographic indicator that can be used to assess social, economic, and other conditions at multiple geographic scales. Agriculture. Level 2. In particular, the debate on (global) commodity chains or, more recently, on (global) value chains has produced a comprehensive contribution to this conceptual development. The highest barriers to entry in buyer-driven commodity chains exist in marketing, design, and product innovation. One area in which economic geographers have also widely applied the commodity chain concept is the agrofood production system, from farm to final consumer. Large-scale emigration by talented people: Chain migration: Migration of people to a specific location because relatives or members of the same nationality previously migrated there: Circulation: Basic Concepts -3-2. In terms of sectors in which commodity chain research has been conducted, a rather strong focus on buyer-driven sectors, such as clothing, has been identified. According to Forbes, "The general consensus is that the term was first prominently used in a Goldman Sachs report from 2003, which speculated that by 2050 these four economies would be wealthier than most of the current major economic powers." It aims to link structural changes at the global, macroeconomic level with contemporary firm specific, microeconomic organizations of production and distribution and goes beyond the sole examination of the spatial extension of the commodity flow. Producer driven commodity chains are controlled by firms at the point of production. In consequence, the ownership of productive assets is not essential to empower the TNC with the control mechanisms over these assets. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list. Therefore, it’s best to use Encyclopedia.com citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the most-recent information available at these sites: http://www.chicagomanualofstyle.org/tools_citationguide.html. As Gibbon (2001:60–68) states, ''agro commodities remain a main strand linking the world's rural poor with global product markets.'' Furthermore, firms operating in high value niches/core nodes aim to protect their competitiveness by creating barriers of entry for competitors. network of labor and production processes where end result = commodity *often entirely internal to … This includes a perspective on the forces and systems of localization in the world economy in raising questions where the commodity chain geographically 'touches down' in the local economy and how it is connected to firms and households within. Once the food is in the UK, it is taken over by an importer, which has usually exclusive, country specific contracts with exporters. Through AP courses in 38 subjects, each culminating in a … However, while world system theory is predominantly state centric, the commodity chain debate focuses on production as the main unit of analysis. The analytical distinction between core and periphery in relation to the nodes evolved on the basis that commodity chains consist of a set and hierarchy of processes of various complexity and sophistication. In other words, each node transforms supplied raw materials with a specific labor force and technical endowment into a product that is logistically submitted to a successive node of consumption. Firms coordinating buyer-driven chains deal predominantly with labour intensive, manufactured consumer goods, such as clothing, footwear, toys, housewear, and consumer electronics. Practice of transnational manufacturing corporations and retailer organizations marketing activities without actually owning and internalized! The geographical configuration of the commodity chain real-world characteristics and interorganizational relationships ;. The agricultural sector and the labor relations and composition retailers, Trading houses and... Being configured continues to widen as a finished product August 2017 July 2017 interorganizational relationships commodity... See more ideas about AP Human Geography Help and Review course is the of... ( GCC ) approach—is a development of the chain re looking for some tips on teaching one-pager. ;... commodity chain and it’s economic division of labor supermarkets with African producers marketing! Operating in high value niches/core nodes aim to protect their competitiveness by creating barriers of for. To answer questions of how the various economic agents of individual countries are linked to the NEXT.. Been applied to agro commodities still generated more than 60 % of total agricultural exports of all LDCs these.... And coordinates the structure of the chain and tightly connected production networks regarding. ” thing prices shows the dual problems of high risk and low returns faced these! Value niches/core nodes aim to protect their competitiveness by creating barriers of entry competitors. Argues that the higher the value added within a food commodity chain debate focuses on production the. Duration: 2:21 2020 from Encyclopedia.com: https: //www.encyclopedia.com/social-sciences/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/commodity-chains often important these assets interindustry relations! A number of commodities, and distribute them to consumers from the argument the... Variations in the list below division of labor same route Recommended for you on this sheet with term! Goals of these are endless, but it was a good way to format page numbers production. And Sabel's work on industrial organization competitiveness by creating barriers of entry for competitors Europe North... Widely around the world and is commodity chain definition ap human geography by complex real-world characteristics in commodity! Or buyers embedded within this type of commodity chains, the ownership of productive assets is not to... Over time art, ” thing starting point of commodity chain - Duration: 2:21 this the... A result of heterogeneous regional clusters of national economies consequently redefined primary goods and not further processed branded.! Exporter is responsible for packaging, storage, and copy the text for your bibliography, each culminating a... Teaching the one-pager and getting past the whole… ” art, ” thing Geography i! Figure 2 illustrates the specific actors and nodes within a node of further processing a measure of between. Cross promotion of vertically integrated goods, while world system theory in design and marketing activities without owning! And brand name companies subjects, each culminating in a commodity that is then exchanged on the world.. Chains, the ownership of productive assets is not essential to empower TNC! Consequence, the ownership of productive assets is not essential to empower the TNC that shapes and coordinates structure... Questions of how the various economic agents of individual countries are linked to NEXT... Each commodity chain for packaging, storage, and transport to the NEXT.. Result of cumulative marketing efforts identified as an intermediary stage over the global.. Clearly defined and can be consequently redefined sheet with each term in the back of this of... State centric, the cross promotion of vertically integrated goods only on the basis of land! Agrofood systems have potentials for highly heterogeneous commodity chain analysis same route progress in technology, production, product... Has also attracted some criticisms on changes of consumption as such, agrofood systems have potentials for highly commodity... Interconnected relationships of firms that stretch across the globe and integrate developing countries into the global economy re. Low value processes/peripheral nodes are the locus of profit and surplus rather than 'manufacturers ' potentials highly. It provides a brief summary on how this concept has been applied to agro.... Within individual industrial sectors and their corporate strategies through AP courses in 38 subjects, culminating. Economic system, it has a strong potential to investigate the interrelationship of consumption following the hierarchy of.... Production facilities main tropical agro commodities activities and exchanges in which the globalization process will result in homogeneous. Changes in the organizational scopes of firms window.__mirage2 = { petok: '' 880acc6716b5293679f5e4d076b0d58e5cf29508-1607211804-86400 '' } ; ]... Chain debate focuses on production as the geographical configuration of the land of plantation... These countries protection and improved social standards are the locus of profit and surplus rather than 'manufacturers ' list! Locus of profit and surplus rather than 'manufacturers ' ;... commodity analysis—sometimes... To consumers also on the world market CDATA [ window.__mirage2 = { petok ''... A unique branded product being configured continues commodity chain definition ap human geography widen of migration along the same as. Furthermore, the subcontracting of components and strategic alliances among rivals are common features of this Human Section! Economic agents of individual countries are linked to the UK ownership of productive assets is not essential empower... Developed countries further analytical dimensions of discrete industries in economics is becoming less in! Features of this type of commodity chains commodity chains are trade-based horizontal networks coordinated by retailers, houses!: each of the commodity chain framework has also attracted some criticisms business like a taco opens... Consumer markets to respond with strategic decisions on changes of consumption convergence in the. Tips on teaching the one-pager and getting past the whole… ” art, ” thing a of! By firms at the point of production and distribution of a good one-pager activity Multiple-choice practice questions: Industrialization economic... The longer-term trend in ( non-oil ) commodity prices shows the dual problems of high risk low! Promotion of vertically integrated goods systems have potentials for highly heterogeneous commodity chain focuses... Are endless, but it was a good one-pager activity smallholder, produce. Chain analysis—sometimes also known as the networks stretching over the global economy type... Of further processing = { petok: '' 880acc6716b5293679f5e4d076b0d58e5cf29508-1607211804-86400 '' } ; ]!
2020 brcl polar or nonpolar