However, it began to escape cultivation as early as the late 20th century, particularly within the Great Lakes Basin states of Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, and, of course, Michigan. If you gently pull at a leaf and look at where it meets the stem, you will see a thin, transparent sheath or membrane sticking up known as a ligule. • The cost to control invasive species and the damages they inflict upon property and natural resources in the U.S. is estimated at $137 billion annually. The larvae feed in tunnels in the wood of the tree branches and trunks, … Photo by AnRo0002, Creative Commons License. If you’d like a plant guide for your area, don’t hesitate to reach out and let us know! A Michigan Nature Guy Blog post. Because the grass family is so very massive (over 10,000 species! Even repeated doses of professional-grade herbicides and seasonal burning don’t always kill it off. For starters, flowering invasive plants result in pollinators visiting native plants less, which further contributes to the decline of these vital native plants. A woody vine capable of climbing over 60 feet, oriental bittersweet can be found trailing along the ground toward the beginning of its life and completely encompassing trees later on. An invasive species is one that is not native and whose introduction causes harm, or is likely to cause harm to Michigan's economy, environment, or human health. Each mature plant is able to produce as much as thirty pounds of fruit per year, or 66,000 seeds, meaning that this species has astonishing potential and opportunity for dispersal and further spread. Aquatic Invasive Species Regulations. This plant is also listed as noxious and restricted in Michigan, so be sure to report it if you find it and certainly don’t purchase or plant it! There is considerable work to do in Michigan to stop the spread of these species. Invasive Species in Michigan: A Quick Look Michigan has been invaded by a number of harmful exotic plants and animals. The goal of this regional resource is to assist both experts and citizen scientists in the detection and identification of invasive species in support of the successful management of invasive species. Unlike the other species on this list, reed canarygrass is actually native to portions of the US. A native variety of loosestrife in Michigan, winged loosestrife (Lythrum alatum), is being exterminated by purple loosestrife. It’s only been fairly recently that the two have been recognized as separate species, and as such efforts to eradicate Phragmites australis have negatively impacted native phragmites populations. It’s now known as one of the most threatening invasive species in the Midwest. Many non-native species in Michigan, including fruits, vegetables, field crops, livestock and domestic … Due to its popularity as an oxygenating pond plant commonly sold in aquaculture, Carolina fanwort (often just referred to as fanwort or cabomba) is of particular concern in Michigan’s sensitive waterways. New Clean Boats, Clean Waters grants available for outreach activities, Time to check trees for hemlock woolly adelgid, Hemlock woolly adelgid found in Ludington State Park, Prune oak trees in winter to prevent oak wilt, MDARD urges continued vigilance after dead spotted lanternfly cases identified in Michigan. We then lose out on critical ecosystem services, which are functions performed by nature that we depend on, but often take for granted and don’t even think about. A native of Asia, autumn olive can grow up to 20 feet tall (though 5 to 10 is more common), and has very sweetly scented, small creamy-white flowers that bloom in early summer. While there are dozens of invasive plants in this state, we’ll mainly cover the most pervasive and damaging ones. We’re hoping to curb that, at least a bit! Don’t underestimate this grass – it’s incredibly difficult to remove. They can also girdle, or literally choke, other plants, small shrubs and large trees alike. Not the Problem. Spotted Knapweed (Centaurea stoebe) Spotted knapweed is commonly found in dryer soils, such as pastures, grasslands, open upland woods, and sunny yards and gardens. European Frogbit (Hydrocharis morsus-ranae), 5. If you see bright yellow, glossy leaves on vines that readily encompass other plants and structures, it’s very likely oriental bittersweet. Bittersweet can even kill mature trees through strangling. ALBION, Mich. (WILX) - The Michigan Department of Natural Resources (DNR) confirmed a new invasive plant at Albion College’s Whitehouse Nature Center in Calhoun County. For small organisms like songbirds and mice, the berries act as a laxative that is so strong it dehydrates them to death. Learn to recognize them. There is a wealth of information about invasive species listed on their website. It has hollow stalks that are persistent through the winter and look similar to bamboo. Its countries of origin are Japan and China, so you may have been told that this highly invasive plant is called a Chinese poppy. Its floating leaves shade out and kill other plants, again resulting in plant death, lack of oxygen, and algal blooms. Curly-leaf Pondweed (Potamogeton crispus), 3. Invasive species cause harm when they out-compete native species by reproducing and spreading rapidly in areas where they have no natural predators and change the balance of the ecosystems we rely on. However, like the other plants on this list, it overtakes areas fast, and its curving, vine-like branches that can grow up to 16 feet tall adeptly choke out other plants. In Michigan, it is a restricted plant, meaning that it’s illegal to own, possess, sell, distribute, or introduce anywhere in the state. To tell the difference between the two, you must look at the fruits (which ripen in autumn). Use the dropdown menus to select the species you want to report. It starts off small and unassuming, with ground-level leaves that can be round, heart-shaped, or kidney-shaped, often resembling those of wild violets and some buttercups. The Indiana Invasives Species Council is another source of information on invasive species in Indiana.. Use EDDMaps to report invasive plants in Indiana.. Most non-native species are not harmful and may provide economic benefits. In Michigan, aquatic and terrestrial (land-dwelling) invasive plant species are responsible for tremendous ecological and economic damage across the state. Their spreading capabilities are the perfect solution to filling in blank spaces in the yard or to create fence trees for a living border wall to give you privacy.. For example, bindweed or Morning Glory is quite pretty and can cover a trellis in no time. Local Concern: Since the first discovery in Michigan in 2002, this invasive beetle has killed tens of millions of ash trees in Michigan, both in forests and in neighborhoods. There is a native variety of phragmites in Michigan, Phragmites americanus. In the Midwest, though, it’s become incredibly invasive as mass agriculture and commercial seed mixtures have accidentally led to its establishment here. Click on an accepted name below to view its PLANTS Profile with more information, and web links if available. It grows rapidly, spreads quickly, and outcompetes all native plants. Top Invasive Aquatic & Marginal Plants in Michigan, 1. A Field Identification Guide to Invasive Plants in Michigan's Natural Communities. American bittersweet has yellow fruits that are found terminally on the plant, or at the end of each branch, while oriental bittersweet has red or orange fruits that are found in clusters at the bases of its leaves. Invasive plants can reduce biodiversity, imperil rare species, reduce wildlife habitat by eliminating native foods or changing cover or nest sites, degrade water quality, reduce forest and farm crop production, and cause human health problems. This in turn results in an even greater reduction in ecosystem functioning, and, by extension, the natural resources that we depend on for survival, as only a fraction of the plant and animal species remain. Invasive Plants in Michigan’s Natural Communities. The wisterias look gorgeous growing over arbors. To report an invasive species, go to the Midwest Invasive Species Information Network website and click on "Report" in the navigation bar at the top. Native primarily to South America, its attractive, vibrantly green underwater foliage and ability to oxygenate and filter water have led to its popularity and dispersal worldwide. Aren’t They Just Plants? Another of the most prolific invasives on this list, reed canarygrass forms dense green seas within only a season or two of establishment. It blocks sunlight and the growth of other plants, resulting in massive plant die-offs over the summer and, typically, algal blooms then take over. There are three "bittersweets," and it is important to distinguish between them: oriental bittersweet (Celastrus orbiculatus), American bittersweet (Celastrus scandens), and bittersweet nightshade (Solanum dulcamara). It’s often mistaken for thistle due to its flower shape and color. Multiflora rose was introduced to North America and Europe in the 1800s from Japan and Korea, where it is native. However, as with fanwort, these benefits aren’t actually benefits outside of its native range. There are many good native plant alternatives to common problem plants. There are many native Potamogeton species in Michigan, so do try to utilize those if you wish to have pondweed. Areas thick with invasive species also, as mentioned above, result in many native animals moving out, which means less food for carnivorous animals, too. However, this tree is now under attack by a harmful invasive species, the hemlock woolly adelgid, or HWA (Adelges tsugae). Most are obligate wetland or aquatic species but several upland species were included as they appear to be spreading in wetlands. Exotic, invasive plants create severe environmental damage, invading open fields, forests, wetlands, meadows, and backyards, and crowding out native plants. What are non-native and invasive species? They have an even more extensive library of fact sheets that can be printed and taken with you when scouting for invasive plants. Examples of non-native plants include: 1. Absolutely do not plant phragmites, and absolutely do report it immediately if you find any. Persicaria perfoliata, an invasive weed otherwise known as devil's tail, tearthumb and mile-a-minute, has been found in Michigan. Invasive species newer to Michigan: Black swallow-wort It climbs and overtakes native trees and shrubs, including girdling trunks and branches. See text of state law for more detail. When it comes to reed canarygrass, though, there’s a surefire way to tell it apart from the native grasses of Michigan. Your cooperation and compliance is critical in helping to ensure that Michigan’s lakes and streams don’t suffer more aquatic invasive species infestations. Its introduction to and widespread establishment in Michigan and, by extension, North America, is due to its featherlike leaves that adeptly filter and oxygenate water, making it a popular aquaculture plant. For example, the porcelainberry has intriguing turquoise and purple fruit. Wildlife, fish, and humans alike find it almost impossible to move through, and if you try you will almost certainly get punctured by the incredibly tough stems (trust us – we’ve been there). Michigan State-listed Noxious Weeds 17 records returned. The permit allows the University of Michigan (U-M) to treat nuisance aquatic plants and algae using only herbicides registered with the MDEQ for use in lakes and ponds and only applicators with the proper certification credentials applying the chemicals to areas with standing water or to water bodies; or using a mechanical means. Pollinators then have significantly fewer pollen and nectar options, as well as fewer host plants for their young, and in turn also decline. Now state officials are trying to find out if it’s growing … However, we now know just how voraciously this plant spreads – it is now illegal to purchase or transport oriental bittersweet in Michigan. The term invasive species refers to a subset of introduced species or non-indigenous species that are rapidly expanding outside of their native range. It’s able to survive winters and even water freezing just fine, often retaining its green leaves throughout. Many of these invasive plants are escapees from gardens and landscapes where they were originally planted. It often takes 5-10 years of repeated treatment to deplete this grass’s seed bank from the soil. This plant needs a lot of room because its 6- to 10-foot tall plants spread rapidly by rhizomes and form large colonies. Restricted in Michigan Invasive phragmites (also known as common reed) is a warm-season perennial grass with a rigid hollow stem and leaves that are flat, smooth, and green to grayish-green. Read on to learn about the top invasive plants in Michigan, and some native alternatives that you can utilize in their place. MDARD is … The law prohibits bringing the plant into the state or moving it around within Michigan. Deer and wolves tend to move out of areas with pervasive buckthorn, while coyotes are more likely to be found in urban locations with buckthorn – presumably because they provide cover. Reed Canarygrass (Phalaris arundinacea), Top Invasive Terrestrial Plants in Michigan, 2. Though it doesn’t possess painful thorns or entangling vines, garlic mustard is another of our most scorned invasives. Few shrubs put on a better fall foliage display. This plant is another that’s on the restricted list, and is incredibly illegal to own, spread, sell, etc. Michigan Public Act 91 of 2009 has made it illegal to transport aquatic plants (except wild rice) on your boat or trailer. Phragmites grows well in just about any damp location, be it along rivers, in the edges of lakes or ponds, or ditches alongside roads. This field guide is intended to help readers identify key invasive species early so that a rapid response can be initiated while successful treatment is still likely. 1 Indiana list is based on assessments by the Indiana Invasive Species Council's Plant Advisory Committee 2 Wisconsin list from the Invasive Plant Association of Wisconsin's (IPAW's) Working List of Invasive Plants 3 Prohibited or restricted by county. Battling invasive plants in Michigan (and elsewhere) is an ongoing, daunting task for the state departments of natural resources. It’s a very hardy grass, drought tolerant and able to sit dormant in soil for years, so it’s been able to take over with gusto. It’s often still harvested for its strong, characteristic garlic-flavored leaves, which are used to make pesto, dips, and dried spice mixtures. Another unfortunately very common invasive species in Michigan (and one of the most destructive), purple loosestrife is still often purchased and planted by gardeners and landscapers due to its beautiful, tall purple blooms. Common buckthorn (R. cathartica) and glossy buckthorn (R. frangula) are both prolific invasive species in Michigan, native to Eurasia. Invasive plant introduction to new areas by humans is one of the leading contributors to the loss of native biodiversity, wildlife habitat degradation, and damage to our vital natural resources. Whether a plant is invasive or not depends on its natural growth habits and where it is located. While some argue these shrubs have wildlife value because of this, much of the plant contains an incredibly toxic compound called emodin. Aquatic Invasive Species Regulations. Where it has escaped cultivation, multiflora rose can be found readily in just about any opening, be it a woodland path (it’s particularly prevalent along hiking trails), grassland, backyard, or a simple opening in the woods provided by the death of a few trees. The Forest Service National Strategic Framework for Invasive Species Management responds to a 2010 USDA Office of Inspector General audit of Forest Service invasive programs by providing a consistent, agency-wide approach to the prevention, detection, and control of invasive insects, pathogens, plants, wildlife, and fish. With long, wavy, almost crispy-looking (hence the Latin name) leaves, curly-leaf pondweed is able to grow several feet tall and forms dense stands and mats underwater. Many non-native species in Michigan, including fruits, vegetables, field crops, livestock and domestic animals, are important to our economy and lifestyle. Introduced as a decorative reed, it cannot be denied that mature phragmites looks impressive with its massive average height of 8 to 13 feet and flowing purple, feathery inflorescences at the top of each reed. These were then spread in pastures and, viola, spotted knapweed took hold as a very hardy, drought tolerant invasive species. Many people think this plant is just harmless ground cover, but over time garlic mustard is able to kill off its competition by releasing allelopathic compounds into the soil. An invasive species is one that is not native and whose introduction causes harm, or is likely to cause harm to Michigan’s economy, environment, or human health. This species is included on Michigan’s watch list, and is the reason for the CAKE CISMA’s diligent winter survey efforts. Invasive Species - (Fallopia japonica) Prohibited in Michigan Japanese knotweed is a perennial shrub that can grow from 3 - 10 feet high. This research is funded by the Department of Entomology at Michigan State University, the Michigan Invasive Species Grant Program of the Michigan Department of Natural Resources, the Sustainable Michigan Endowed Project, and the C.S. Autumn olive 4. Mature Phragmites stand in Michigan Phragmites (pictured below) is an invasive reed found across the state. Another invasive species that is often overlooked, garlic mustard typically grows 1 to 2 feet tall (sometimes taller) and has small white flowers. Tinca tinca, stone moroko, parrot feather and yellow floating heart are a few of the unwanteds on the list. Within only a couple of years, it forms dense mats that block sunlight to other aquatic plants – even though fanwort is a natural oxygenator, this incongruously results in plant death and decay, which in turn depletes oxygen levels overall and can cause water stagnation. Even if you only have or want a small amount of Eurasian watermilfoil, know that it spreads readily and is difficult to remove all root fragments to prevent regrowth. The negative effects that these invasive species present to the local environment include: Reduced biodiversity; Altered hydrologic and/or soil conditions Michigan's Invasive Species Program is cooperatively implemented by the Michigan Departments of Agriculture & Rural Development, Environmental Quality and Natural Resources. Oriental Bittersweet (Celastrus orbiculatus), backyard garden can truly be a safe haven, Michigan Natural Features Inventory guide, Leslie J. Mehrhoff, University of Connecticut, Bugwood.org, Curly-leaf Pondweed (Potamogeton crispus), Eurasian Watermilfoil (Myriophyllum spicatum), northern watermilfoil (Myriophyllum sibiricum), European Frogbit (Hydrocharis morsus-ranae), Phragmites/European Common Reed (Phragmites australis), Rob Routledge, Sault College, Bugwood.org, alder-leaved buckthorn (Rhamnus alnifolia), Oriental Bittersweet (Celastrus orbiculatus), Swamp Sunflower Facts, Care & Planting Guide (Helianthus angustifolius), Mexican Butterfly Weed Care & Planting Guide (Asclepias curassavica), 13 Shade Loving Plants for Around Ponds [Updated], How to Plant & Grow Common Cowslip (Primula veris), How to Plant & Grow Flowering Rush (Butomus umbellatus), How to Plant & Grow American Water Willow (Justicia americana), Soft Rush Facts, Care, & Planting Guide (Juncus effusus), Giant Arrowhead Facts, Care, & Planting Guide (Sagittaria montevidensis), Complete Guide to Utsurimono Koi 2020 [Updated], Do Pond Fish Hibernate? I hope this talk (and blog) promotes the recognition of these invasive plants. Purple Loosestrife (Lythrum salicaria), 7. Many of the species included in this list are actually beautiful plants. Your backyard garden can truly be a safe haven for many organisms. This is due to its ability to quickly form dense underwater mats that kill off other vegetation and give harmful bacteria and algae species to take hold. A species is regarded as invasive if it: Noxious weeds that are synonyms retain their noxious status, and are indented beneath the current PLANTS accepted name. In fact, it’s a common site in the Midwest along expressways, just seas of this tall, thick reed. Japanese honeysuckle 3. We may be a bit biased here, but multiflora rose is among our most-hated invasive species on this list (it’s possible that we’ve fallen prey to its tangled branches covered in thorns a time or two). As with most of the aquatic species on this list, its establishment outside of its native range of Eurasia is due to its popularity in aquaculture and the ability to easily purchase just about any plant online regardless of location. Thanks to startup funding from the Michigan Invasive Species Grant Program, a team from Michigan State University is launching a statewide effort to help residents learn about the risks and impacts of invasive forest pests. There is a native variety of watermilfoil in Michigan: northern watermilfoil (Myriophyllum sibiricum). Phragmites is our number one most loathed invasive plant on this list. The flowers grow as dense branched clusters on the end of each stem that are open and feathery at maturity. Then there are the invasive plants, and there are a lot of them. An invasive plant that has long caused problems in eastern states has been found in Michigan. Endangered in its natural habitat yet proliferating at a concerning rate as an invasive species, the benefits and risks of keeping frog-bit varies wildly depending on location. It also has small, solitary flowers located at the bases of its leaves, while purple loosestrife has large clustered spikes of flowers located terminally at the end of each stem. The Michigan departments of Natural Resources and Agriculture and Rural Development recently confirmed the presence of invasive mile-a-minute weed (Persicaria perfoliata) at Albion College’s Whitehouse Nature Center in Calhoun County.. Mile-a-minute weed, a fast-growing, barbed vine native to India, Asia and the Philippine Islands, was not known to be in Michigan until Doug … The more we learn about invasive plants, the more we realize how difficult they are to control, much less eradicate. However, once established it is incredibly difficult to get rid of. It’s also able to hybridize with Michigan’s native bittersweet species, American bittersweet (Celastrus scandens), resulting in the native variety becoming less and less common. The Michigan departments of Natural Resources and Agriculture and Rural Development recently confirmed the presence of invasive mile-a-minute weed (Persicaria perfoliata) at Albion College’s Whitehouse Nature Center in Calhoun County.. Mile-a-minute weed, a fast-growing, barbed vine native to India, Asia and the Philippine Islands, was not known to be in Michigan until Doug … The reed, when fully mature, grows to nearly 15 feet in height, frequently obscuring waterfront views and even blocking waterway access. Starry stonewort loves the clean, clear, and calcium carbonate rich waters of Michigan’s inland lakes. Purchased at local nurseries, wholesale suppliers and elsewhere, these plants have the potential of taking over large areas, affecting native plants and animals and negatively changing … If you see acres and acres of reed canary grass, it’s almost guaranteed that they’re all connected to the same rhizomes. In Michigan, the … See text of state law for more detail. Curly-leaf pondweed has fairly recently emerged as a problematic invasive species in Michigan, establishing itself in many waterways within the last few years and spreading quickly. Purple loosestrife can be found in every state in the US except Florida, and is often seen in damp ditches along roadsides, wetlands, near ponds, lakes and rivers, floodplains, and in gardens, fields, and landscaping where they have access to enough water. It’s rather small at an average of 2 feet in height, with hairy, almost rough-looking stems, small bluish leaves and bushy purple-pink flowers. This site uses Akismet to reduce spam. Carolina Fanwort (Cabomba caroliniana), 2. In addition, R. alnifolia always has toothed, alternate leaves that are not glossy, whereas both invasive buckthorns have smooth, oval, glossy leaves that can be opposite each other or alternate. It can be found in wetlands, moist grasslands and fields, ditches, and along water edges. A list of invasive exotic plants, found in Indiana natural areas.. In fact, often within just a few years of being colonized by invasive species, without intervention the wetland or waterway is at great risk of being choked out and disappearing altogether. ), it can be difficult to identify and distinguish species. Non-native plant species pose a significant threat to the natural ecosystems of the United States. Native to Eurasia, garlic mustard (sometimes called poor-man’s garlic) was intentionally introduced to the US by settlers as a food source. It was initially used to help prevent erosion and as a sort of “living fence,” but thankfully has since been recognized as terribly invasive, but unfortunately is still widely sold and cultivated by those unaware of how terribly damaging it is. Click on an accepted name below to view its PLANTS Profile with more information, and web links if available. LANSING, Mich. – Dead spotted lanternfly insects were found in Michigan in recent weeks, according to The Michigan Department of Agriculture and Rural Development (MDARD). The Report IN is a regional effort to develop and provide an early detection and rapid response (EDRR) resource for invasive species. The plant ranges in height from 6-13 feet. It’s important to note that Michigan does have a native buckthorn species, alder-leaved buckthorn (Rhamnus alnifolia). This shrub, with its characteristic silvery leaves, has had a varied history in Michigan. In areas where garlic mustard is established, there are fewer mature trees due to garlic mustard’s toxins killing off tree seedlings and preventing new generations from maturing. It’s also known as common frogbit within it native range. While the names sound interesting and exotic, the results of these species establishing themselves in Great Lakes waters could be devastating. Invasive species can alter ecological relationships among native species and can affect ecosystem function and human health. Despite their relatively small size, a single garlic mustard plant can release 3,000 seeds per season, making it difficult to spot and control until it’s larger (and has already gone to seed). The Asian longhorned beetle can attack and kill many tree species including poplar, willow, sycamore, and horse chestnut, but its favorite host are maple trees. While Phragmites australis is native to Michigan, an invasive, non-native, variety of phragmites is becoming widespread and is threatening the ecological health of wetlands and the Great Lakes coastal shoreline. Learn to recognize them. With its small, kidney or heart-shaped leaves that float atop the water’s surface, European frogbit’s introduction into Michigan and many other places outside of its native European range is due to its popularity in aquaculture and ornamental ponds. That watch-listing helped White realize the plant… These flowers, and its unique leaves with their silvery sheen and tart berries often used for jams, have made this plant incredibly popular in landscaping. Eurasian Watermilfoil (Myriophyllum spicatum), 4. It’s very hardy once established, and resistant even to professional-grade herbicides, often requiring several repeated treatments over multiple seasons to fully kill. Many non-native species are considered invasive, as they are free from natural predators, reproduce rapidly, …