High pressure on the “windward” side and low pressure on the “leeward” side combine to force oil out along the shaft . These seals are available in a split design ( Fig. Oil mist Oil mist is an extremely good way to lubricate fan and blower bearings. Step 1 of 5. Double row, self-aligning bearings are commonly oil-lubricated when used on high-speed fan shafts. FANS AND BLOWERS. However, the cost of down time is much higher. This technique is critical on fans that run at high speeds or for bearings that are spaced more than 2-ft apart on a shaft. The purpose of this document is to provide fundamental information and to guide the industry on Balance and vibration technology as applied to impellers used in air moving systems. They use tapered adapters with straight shafts to both mount the bearings and control internal bearing clearances. Oil lubrication is better than grease in minimum load conditions. Feature: Solutions to fan and blower bearing problems. Contacting seals minimize leakage but cause shaft friction and seal wear. Once a year, the housing should be opened and excess grease removed. Fan is a machine used to add energy to the gaseous fluid to increase its pressure. When a shaft is rotating at high speed, it develops heat, causing it to grow axially. We have solutions for your book! Search Products And Discover New Innovations In Your Industry!! Thickness of the removable base depends on the size of the pillow block housing. Fan and blowers (mech 326) 1. Oil can be changed and samples taken without shutting down the fan. The Engineering Mindset 139,463 views These systems are designed to deal with high temperature problems because they constantly supply new oil to the bearing. Nothing beats a contact temperature device to prevent confusion. These machines produce the head (pressure) in the expense of mechanical energy input. There are models that can be adjusted to solve this problem. 491 0 obj <>/Filter/FlateDecode/ID[<8486933EDDB055ABEA25F5A06B6C57EA><7E0DA4AD5DA6FF4BBEB095B78A8C540A>]/Index[458 129]/Info 457 0 R/Length 160/Prev 1069053/Root 459 0 R/Size 587/Type/XRef/W[1 3 1]>>stream 458 0 obj <> endobj Fan & motor CALCULATIONS, Pulley size, RPM, air flow rate cfm hvac rtu - Duration: 9:58. More info The author is available to answer questions about fan and blower bearing problems. All dimensions, parts, and performance remain the same. These bearings handle higher loads than ball bearings, but are limited to lower speeds. ‘s and don’ts of the plastic pipe installation process. The fan is used to flow of gas or air, in open space. If there is noise coming from our Indoor Blower motor, This problem comes up when indoor blower attach with indoor body, So this can lead to many issues. 586 0 obj <>stream Due to its shallow lubrication reservoir, it is only suited for grease service. 1 Purpose of this Guide 6 • The main factors for equipment selection and system design are provided, while giving an overview of different types of fans and blowers and their general applications. Pumps, Fans, Blowers and Compressors which impart hydraulic energy to a fluid by converting the mechanical energy available in a shaft. The standard, G-type, contact seal causes too much heat at high speeds. Oil mist cost has come down over the past several years and the payback can be as soon as 1 yr. Air cooling Using air to cool the outside of a pillow block is the most common mistake made in the field. It might seem a bearing is running hot, but if the file shows this bearing usually runs hot, then time and resources are not spent fixing a problem that doesn’t exist. Consult a lubrication specialist or supplier about the different synthetic oils available. Sidebar 3: What oil mist does. Having a removable base makes pillow block replacement easier by allowing room to install components, such as bearing adapters and labyrinth seals. The maximum speed should always be checked, especially if there have been repeated failures on a particular fan. They run at relatively low speed, the casing and impeller usually built of sheet iron. It is targeted mainly at the undergraduate students of USA, UK and other European countries and the M.Sc. Pillow block housings Mountings or pillow blocks are available for most types of rolling element bearings. Problems are solved under Lorentztransformationsoflength,time,velocity,momentumandenergy,theinvari-ance of four-momentum vector, transformation of angles and Doppler effect and threshold of particle production. As a rule-of-thumb, this thickness should be the same as the distance from the base to the center height of the housing being supported. Air is directed to the outside of a pillow block in an attempt to lower the bearing temperature. Common Fan Systems Problems 5. It includes terminology used and methods of Balancing practiced by the industry. When the shaft cannot be raised, having a removable base is an advantage. All of the above pillow block styles are normally supplied for straight shafts. Configurations to Improve Fan System Efficiency 8. A good trick is to mark an “X” on the pillow block or housing so the temperature is always taken at the same location. Many of these seals are running much faster with no apparent problems, because the felt has worn back and doesn’t contact the shaft, thus preventing a heat build-up. Contact him by e-mail at nagius@combrg.com . Shaft locking Some lighter series of ball bearing pillow blocks use a set screw and collar to secure the inner ring to the shaft. Practice Problems 2B Firstly, if we perform the source transformation, the original circuit changes to a simple series one. It is advisable to fix the bearing closest to the drive coupling or belt. When starting up a cold fan, run it and shut it down a couple of times before turning it over to operations. Automatic oilers Automatic oilers are ideally suited for use on most centrifugal pumps; however, their use on most styles of pillow block housings is questionable, because they can cause oil leaks. Purpose 1.1 Purpose. When the set screw is tightened, the shaft is pushed off-center, causing the assembly to become unbalanced, which happens on both ends of the same shaft. Each time grease is added, the amount should be recorded and logged so that all maintenance personnel are aware of what has been done. Seals Seals retain lubricant and exclude foreign matter. Failure is caused by the bearings being damaged at startup from reduced clearances due to the cold housings that did not expand in time. Often lowers bearing temperatures dramatically. Sidebar 1: Starting cold fans. Step-by-step solution: Chapter: Problem: FS show all show all steps. This removal ensures the buildup of old grease does not cause bearings to run too hot. The difference between levels can be as high as 1/2 in. In Fig. This problem is caused by the location of the automatic oiler on the housing. SAF, SAFD, and SNH housings have fixing rings that can be added or removed to create a fixed and floating arrangement. Pedestal and fan base construction The base pedestal for pillow blocks should have a removable base under the housing that is bolted onto the main frame. ��b9 6�Fo���`{w�I���7@���� �\�,"egI���n�6'H��������6��qx�2w��������{ � ,�� 1)Centrifugal Flow Fan:- Airflow changes direction twice - once when entering and second when leaving . Many fan bearing failures are caused by the housing cooling and reducing the bearing running clearance. Machinery fault diagnosis and signal processing by Prof. A.R. The blower is mostly used to flow of gas in a specific direction. Initial Fan and System Inspection — Most problems occur during the start-up phase of any installation. The blower has large static pressure and its airflow is 1/2 to 1/5 that of the fan. Fixed and floating bearings Most shafts have at least two bearings supporting them. As per ASME, the specific pressure, i.e. Install an oil system that lowers and controls the oil temperature. V sigma = 60V - 30V = 30V R sigma = 30 Ohm + 60 Ohm= 90 Ohm I sigma = V simga /R sigma = 1/3 A V 12 = V 60 +30V = 1/3 * 60 + 30V = 50V . Problem (8): 220 v, 7 Hp DC series motor coupled to a fan, the motor draws 25 A and runs at 300 rpm at terminal voltage of 220v and no external resistance, torque of the fan is proportional to the square of the speed, if R a=0.6 Ω and R f=0.4 Ω. Industrial Fans and Blower Industrial Fan and Industrial Blower. Application variables include temperature range, dynamic shaft runout, and shaft speed variation. SAF and SAFD The most popular styles for fans and blowers are SAF and SAFD housings ( Fig. One way to eliminate this problem is to fix the bearing furthest away from the belt drive. This mark ensures consistency and accuracy of readings. • Depending on types of flow, fans are categorized as, • Major blower types are, 1)Centrifugal Blower:- Similar to centrifugal fan but can achieve high pressure. Our extensive team of expert fan engineers provide a complete application, design, manufacturing, testing and site service facilities with national and international distributors. If the housing is cooled, expansion is restricted, causing more internal heat. Sidebar 4: Preventing oil purge from pillow blocks. MECHANICAL BALANCE OF FANS AND BLOWERS Section 1. Provides an automatic, centralized system that continuously delivers fresh, clean oil to multiple, widespread machine elements. They use tapered bore bearings with adapter sleeves to mount the bearings correctly. This is achieved by rotating a number of blades, connected to a hub and shaft, and driven by a motor or turbine. Fans are used where low pressures (from a few mm of water to 50 mm Hg) and comparatively large volume are required. Consider synthetic oils. They are convenient and economical, and reduce the time spent selecting and preparing bearing elements, seals, and mounting methods. This situation is a critical point to understand, to avoid adding too much oil and exacerbating the problem that is to be eliminated. Operate close to BEP 4. the fan blade W. 12 Household Fan 2/2 Idealized flow through a fan: (a) fan blade geometry: (b) absolute velocity, V; relative velocity, W, and blade velocity, U at the inlet and exit of the fan blade section. TYPES OF FANS AND BLOWERS 2)Axial Flow Fan:- Air enters and leaves the fan with no change in direction. Double-row, spherical bearings with tapered adapters are simple to mount and internal clearances are easy to adjust. At the same time, it is not providing much protection. See the answer. The internal temperature increases, because the internal running clearance of the bearings is reduced. The leakage occurs at one end of the housing and may be experienced with any seal design. This noncontact seal doesn’t generate heat on the shaft and can handle high speeds. Oil lubrication is preferred over grease for bearings. There is often a problem of oil leakage along the shaft. The Fan Laws are a group of useful equations for determining the effects of a change in the speed, the diameter of the fan and the density of air in the system. 3 Energy Efficiency Opportunities 1. It keeps the bearings both cool and clean. CHAPTER 14. 2, fluid flow through the cross-hatched region is at steady state so there is no time-wise change of momentum in this region. Heat is then transferred to the outer ring and the pillow block housing, which causes them to expand. Indications of Oversized Fans 6. A squeeze-lock design has a series of splits on the inner ring which, when the lock collar is tightened, allows the shaft to remain centered ( Fig. of momentum, the product of mass and velocity, which is changed linearly by the application of external force. The details of pressure ratios are given below. It is advisable to fix only one bearing per shaft so that one is locked from axial movement while the other is allowed to float. If we draw 5 balls from the urn at once and without peeking, The types of centrifugal blowers and their uses, typical installation practice, noise, and performance is discussed. Bearings Both double-row, spherical roller, and ball bearings are common in fan pillow blocks. Improves safety, productivity, housekeeping, and lubrication. Choose the right fan 2. Maintain fans regularly 5. 4 ). It blows gases or air in every direction. Chapters 7 and 8 are concerned with problems in low energy Nuclear physics. This axial growth places a load on both bearings if they are fixed in their housings. The problem with most of these devices is that different surfaces have different emissivities. The only way to check the grease is to shut down the fan and remove the top cap of the pillow block. Fans & Blowers Introduction Types of fans and blowers Assessment of fans and blowers Energy efficiency opportunities. Feature: Solutions to fan and blower bearing problems, Sidebar 2: Advantages of oil lubrication in fan bearings, Sidebar 4: Preventing oil purge from pillow blocks, Nick Agius, Commercial Bearing Service, Ltd., Edmonton, AB, Canada. 3, the PQ characteristics exhibit characteristic trends when a motor of equivalent power is used. Oil Using oil to lubricate fan bearings is clearly an advantage, especially at high speeds. Eliminate this problem by installing a pressure equalizing tube. 4. 1. Search Products And Discover New Innovations In Your Industry. Proper pillow block and seal selection help avoid bearing problems. Differences in PQ characteristics of fans and blowers As illustrated in Fig. The oiler gives too much oil at startup or allows the oil level to sink too low before releasing oil, which might be too late to prevent failure. A large-motor re-alignment can take hours. Introduc9on/ • Turbomachines/add/or/extractenergy/from/a fluid/stream./ • We/are/mainly/concerned/with/performance/ and/system/modelling. The major objection is cost. Nick Agius, Commercial Bearing Service, Ltd., Edmonton, AB, Canada . If a spacer coupling is not used, split bearings should be used. Blowers are mostly larger than the fan. Mounted bearing units are available off-the-shelf and the only selection information necessary is shaft size, radial and thrust load, load characteristics, speed, and environment. An urn contains 1 red ball and 10 blue balls. Split-lip The standard seal for SNH housings is the G-type, split-lip. There is little advantage to the split design unless it is used with a split bearing. Steven Seiden, Leighton Johnson, Dr. Tony Barber, Djenana Campara, Advantages of oil lubrication in fan bearings, The need for robotic offline programming in a COVID-19 world, Cybersecurity and the rise of IT-enabled OT systems, How collaborative robots’ role is growing on the plant floor, Direct drive vs. geared rotary servomotor: A quantification of design advantage: Part 1, Manufacturing index stays strong in November, Contactless measurement developed for COVID-19 tests. As soon as new grease is added, bearing temperature rises for a short period of time. SNH and SNL The SNH housing creates two major problems related to lubrication and sealing for fan service. Fans, blowers and compressors are differentiated by the method used to move the air, and by the system pressure they must operate against. 1.1.1 Intent. Pillow blocks run at slightly lower temperatures than those lubricated with grease. This condition seems to be more of a problem with grease lubrication than with oil lubrication, because cold grease does not lubricate as effectively as oil. This style of block is available with oil lubrication only. However, this contact creates shaft wear and much higher temperatures at high speeds and is the primary reason why this seal is not the best selection for a fan application. Be careful when depending on noncontact, infrared, laser-sight thermometers for readings. :Advantages of oil lubrication in fan bearings. Practice Problem Turbine, fans and blowers and compressor 1. The SNL housing supersedes the SNH housing. This approach is not the best style of locking device for high-speed shafts. The PDN block can easily be modified to accept a labyrinth seal by machining the end plates. Performance curves are defined. If the temperature reading is not accurate, a solution may be sought for a problem that doesn’t exist. In addition to being more useful for ventilation planning, this is understandable as manufacturers may have no control over the types of inlet and outlet duct fittings or the conditions at entry or exit to inlet/outlet cones. Labyrinth The standard seal for SAF and SAFD pillow blocks is the LER aluminum, labyrinth design. The SNH block can work with oil if a recirculating oil system is used. This problem is a result of the pressure differential across the housing caused by the flow of air. Geoff Edwards, the technical product engineer at Axair Fans UK Limited, explains the three basic fan laws when applied to warehouse ventilation studies. The problem with automatic oilers on SAFD and SNH housings is the difference in dynamic and static oil levels. blowers, and ... Get solutions . SOLVED PROBLEMS Problem 14.3. Record all running temperatures on a regular basis for all fan bearings. Standard oils can have a maximum operating temperature as low as 150 F. Some synthetic oils operate at maximum temperatures as high as 550 F. At these higher temperatures, the bearing becomes the weak link. This is normally the user’s responsibility prior to getting others involved. If a spacer coupling is not used, the motor must be pulled off its base when a bearing replacement is required, which requires extra time. Reductions in power consumption of more than 25% are common. The fan is smaller than the blower. %PDF-1.6 %���� Extends machine life by helping to exclude dirt and corrosive atmospheres with pressurized housings. Closely approximates actual bearing requirements and reduces lubricant consumption by as much as 80%. Conversely, a slightly lower dynamic level than the static level appears on the other side. Multiple-Fan Arrangements 11. 0 Fan blower problems solve. If both sides of the housing are connected, the internal pressure is equalized. 13 Windmill Consider the windmill. Previous question Next question Transcribed Image Text from this Question. 1 ). for estimating fan power consumption and noise. Oversized bearings can be lightly loaded and fail. Protects equipment on standby and in storage. Not by actual cooling, but because a power consumption reduction represents heat that is not generated in churning excess lubricant. Noncontacting seals do not generate heat and allow a small amount of lubricant leakage but do not wear. Industrial fan and Industrial blower are machines whose primary function is to provide and accommodate a large flow of air or gas to various parts of a building or other structures. Many of the simpler problems can be solved up front by conducting a thorough inspection. No feeler gauges, charts, adjustments, or measurements are required. As an industrial fan manufacturer, we design, build, and deliver (including installation support) heavy duty centrifugal fans and blowers.We serve industrial customers who need equipment for their operations, and OEM customers who supply equipment to industrial customers. The most common complaint for this type is that the seals leak oil. 2. essentials of fan and blower systems, the first section provides a brief discussion of terms, relationships and important system design considerations. Level and condition of the oil is always visible through a sight glass. SAF, SAFD, SNH, and SNL pillow blocks are available with stepped shaft designs. If the load is too light, balls or rollers can skid. This method is the most accurate, simplest, and quickest way to install a bearing. Spacer couplings should always be used on fans and blowers. Another problem is that anyone with a grease gun can add new lubrication. (Grease tends to stiffen and not slump into bearings at cold temperatures, depriving them of lubrication.). Show transcribed image text. Reduce the system resistance 3. The bearing inner ring usually has a clearance fit to allow it to slide onto a ground shaft. Double-row ball bearings with tapered bores are the most difficult to set correctly because a feeler gauge cannot be used to set the proper clearances. The argument most maintenance people use to justify a split seal is the ease of replacement, but a seal should only have to be replaced if the bearing fails. It is limited in its ability to seal in a dirty environment. Roller skidding can be avoided by properly sizing the bearing, and is determined by a detailed failure analysis. It should be noted that final fan selection should be made by using Hudson’s Tuf-Lite® ‚ Fan Selection Program or by contacting Hudson Products Corporation at 713-914-5700 or 1-800-634-9160. This approach generates heat in the inner ring. Fans generate a pressure to move air (or gases) against a resistance caused by ducts, dampers, or other com- ponents in a fan system. Proper pillow block and seal selection help avoid bearing problems. This action eliminates the internal pressure driving the oil out. Fans, blowers and compressors Table 5.1 Differences Between Fans, Blower And Compressor are differentiated by the method used to move the air, and by the system pressure they must operate against. 4. CENTRIFUGAL FANS, BLOWERS AND COMPRESSORS 4.1 Introduction Power absorbing turbomachines used to handle compressible fluids like air, gases etc, can be broadly classified into: (i) Fans (ii)Blowers and (iii)Compressors. The direction of shaft rotation causes a slightly higher dynamic level than the static level on one side of the housing while the fan is running. h��T�KTQ?��{�M�4ul{e�� CALЇ�ƒ�0ʲef,��ԙV���\�b��jB�P��O%ч!Z�e�@)*��� ��{�-���x��s�=��9w� � �;�Ɨ�ژ���m��翭��a��`��� �� This book complements the book 1000 Solved Problems in Modern Physics by the same author and published by Springer-Verlag so that bulk of the courses for undergraduate curriculum are covered. A more complete discussion of this topic can be viewed on the company web site at commercialbearing.com . 45 kW of shaft power is developed by a turbine working under an available head of 40 m. The energy transferred from the water to the runner is 350 J. The millwright merely has to heat up the bearing and mount it on the shaft. Although both designs accommodate oil lubrication, SAFD has a larger lubrication reservoir for shaft sizes greater than 31/4-in. 2 ) include a large oil reservoir, stepped shaft design, and simplified alignment. If air is used, direct it toward the shaft, not the housing. Bearing manufacturers can provide this service and other solutions to roller skidding. These oils can run at much higher temperatures than standard grades. Temperature measurement The type of temperature device selected is very important. Also, the SAFD design has a ductile iron body, which is preferred for fan service. The fan has a large airflow and its static pressure is 1/2 to 1/5 that of the blower. —Edited by Joseph L. Foszcz, Senior Editor,630-320-7135, jfoszcz@cahners.com. This situation is a result of the design of the pillow block and the drain hole positions. dia. Problems coming from this issue. ��. Solved Problems in Classical Mechanics v(t)= dr(t) dt, (1) and the acceleration a(t), which is the time rate of change of the velocity, a(t)= dv(t) dt. If all fans and blowers ran at 1200 rpm, their reliability would be very high; however, most run at 1800—3600 rpm or higher. Controlling Fans with Variable Loads 9. System Leaks 7. The blower is used to point the air in a specific direction. Split-babbitt Another common fan pillow block is the split-babbitt design. The higher the speed, the more problematic they become. Another common device is the eccentric lock collar, which produces the same result as set screws. An O-ring in the inner bore is particularly useful when using oil because it seals along the shaft. Many common problems are caused by the improper selection of pillow block housings, seals, bearings, lubricant, and lubrication systems. Lubrication There are several lubrication factors that should be considered. Fans Malcolm J. McPherson 5 Fan manufacturers usually publish characteristic curves in terms of fan static pressure rather than the fan total pressure. Expert Answer . Other than their color, the balls are indis-tiguishable, so if one is to draw a ball from the urn without peeking - all the balls will be equally likely to be selected. Fan System Economics Section 3: Programs, Resources, and Contacts Section 3 provides a directory of associations and Oil lubrication is better than grease in extremely cold applications. Chapter: Problem: FS show all show all steps. Q14-1 . The static and dynamic oil levels should be clearly marked. Oversized bearings can … Fan Drive Options 10. Build protection around the motor and fan bearings to reduce the winter wind chill factor. Sidebar 2: Advantages of oil lubrication in fan bearings. Notice the two source are in the opposite direction. If the running temperature of the bearings is still too high, there are some options that help deal with this problem. This action sounds simple, but is often overlooked. Control the fan air flow. This design provides good sealing because of contact. %%EOF Felt A very common seal on older pillow blocks is felt, which has a surprisingly low shaft speed limit of only 800 fpm. By this procedure, the outer ring and housing are given a chance to expand from heat transfer. With this modification, a hydraulic nut can be used to assemble the bearings. Rather than the rotor being driven by a motor, it is rotated in the opposite direction by the wind blowing through the rotor. h�bbd```b``+���@$� �d> "9���@$�li�fw�Ȳh ɘy��| bg�H��) vz��V Heat is generated inside the bearing and causes the shaft and inner ring to expand. Grease A major problem when using grease is the inability to analyze the condition and amount of usable grease inside the pillow block while the fan is running. Find the motor size needed to provide the forced-draft service to a boiler that burns coal at the rate of 10 tons per hr. The Industrial Fan Manufacturer With Gold Standard Reliability. Fans and blowers are simple pieces of equipment, yet require a lot of maintenance, particularly for bearings. The belt drive about fan and system Inspection — most problems occur the... 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